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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
capsid
The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complete in shape.
viral envelope
A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. See phage.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
The name of the late stages of HIV infection; defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections.
cAMP receptor protein (CRP)
A regulatory protein that directly stimulates gene expression.
compressor
A small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off.
conjugation
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
yclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells (for example, in vertebrate endocrine cells). It is also a regulator of some bacterial operons.
episome
A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.
F factor
A fertility factor in bacteria, a DNA segment that confers the ability to form pili for conjugation and associated functions required for the transfer of DNA from donor to recipient. It may exist as a plasmid or integrated into the bacterial chromosome.
F1 plasmid
The plasmid form of an F factor.
generalized transduction
The random transfer of bacterial genes from one bacterium to another.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
The infectious agent that causes AIDS; HIV is an RNA retrovirus.
host range
The limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize.
inducer
A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon.
insertion sequence
The simplest kind of transposon, consisting of inverted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transposase, the enzyme that catalyzes transposition.
lysogenic cycle
A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host.
lytic cycle
A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell.
nucleoid
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
operator
In prokaryotic DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon.
operon
A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions.
phage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a bacteriophage.
plasmid
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast.
prion
An infectious form of protein that may increase in number by converting related proteins to more prions.
prophage
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.
provirus
Viral DNA that inserts into a host genome.
R plasmid
A bacterial plasmid carrying genes that confer resistance to certain antibiotics.
regulatory gene
A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
repressor
A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene.
retrovirus
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses.
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
specialized transduction
The transfer of only those genes near the prophage site on the bacterial chromosome.
temperate phages
Phages that are capable of using either the lytic or lysogenic cycle.
transduction
A DNA-transfer process used by phages to carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another.
transformation
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
transposon
A transposable genetic element; a mobile segment of DNA that serves as an agent of genetic change.
vaccine
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen.
viral envelope
A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.
virulent virus
A virus that reproduces only by a lytic cycle.