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21 Cards in this Set

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Activating Group
A substituent that makes the aromatic ring more reactive ( usually toward EAS) than benzene
Acyl Group (R-C(=O)-O)
A carbonyl group with an alkyl group attached
Acyl Chloride
an acyl group bonded to a chlorine atom RCOCl.
Acylium Ion
An acyl group fragment with a positive charge. ( RC(triple bond O+)
Benzylic position
the carbon atom of an alkyl group that is directly bonded to a benzene ring; the position to a benzene ring.
Benzyne
A reactive intermediate in some nucleophilic aromatic subsitutions, benzyne is benzene with 2 hydrogens atoms removed.
Clemmensen Reduction
The reduction of a carbonyl group to a methylene group by Zn(Hg), in dilute HCl.
Deactivating Group
A substituent that makes the aromatic ring less reactive (usually toward EAS) than benzene.
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS)
Replacement of a hydrogen on an aromatic ring by a strong electrophile.
Friedel-Crafts Acylation
Formation of a an acylbenzene by substitution of an acylium ion on an aromatic ring.
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
Formation of an alkyl-substituted benzene derivative by substitution of an alkyl carbocation or carbocation-like species on an aromatic ring.
Gatterman-Koch Synthesis
The synthesis of benzaldehydes by treating a benzene derivative with CO and HCl using an AlCl3/CuCl catalyst.
Halonium Ion
Any positively charged ion that has a positive charge on a halogen atom
Inductive Stabilization
Stabilization of a reactive intermediate by donation or withdrawal of electorn ensity through sigma bonds.
Nitration
Replacement of a hydrogen atom by a nitro group, -NO2
Nitronium Ion
the NO2+ ion.
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substituion (NAS)
Replacement of a leaving group on an aromatic ring by a strong nucleophile.
Ortho, Para director
A substituent that activates primarily the ortho and para position toward attack.
Resonance Stabilization
Stabilization of a reactive intermediate by donation or withdrawal of electron-density through pi bonds.
Sulfonation
Replacement of a hydrogen atom by a sulfonic acid group, -SO3H
Desulfonation
Replacement of the SO3H group by a hydrogen. In benzene derivatives, this is done by heating with water or steam.