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88 Cards in this Set

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studied noise cancellation
percy chapman
require matter to travel
medium
highest point on a wave
crest
lowest point on a wave
trough
causes medium to vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave travels
transverse
areas that are close together
compression
wave's energy moves left to right and is spread out
rarefaction
p waves
primary waves
wave that travels along a surface separating two media
surface
perpindicular to the direction in which the wave travels
surface
breaking crust vibrates creating SE, carry energy outward
seismic waves
forces in earth's crust can cause
regions of the crust to shift bend or break
combination of compressional and transerse waves
travel through earth and along its surface
objects on earth's surface absorb some energy from seismic waves....
causing them to move and shake
both seismic and transvese waves travel through a medium w/o
transferring matter
distance b/w a point on one wave and the same point on the next crest
wavelength
measured in m, km, cm
wavelength
maximum displacement of the medium from its resting position
amplitude
number of complete cycles in a given time
frequency
measured in hertz (Hz)
frequency
time required for one cycle to complete motion that returns to its starting point
period
1/frequency
period
any motion that repeats at regular time intervals
periodic motion
a wave's frequency equals
the frequency of the vibrating source producing the wave
formula for wave speed
v= wavelength times frequency
increasing the frequency of a wave
decreases its wavelength
the more energy a wave has
the greater its amplitude
if you assume that waves are traveling at a constant speed then
wavelengthis inversely proportional to frequency
when a wave bounces off a surface that it cannot pass through
reflection
reflection does not change the speed or frequency of a wave but
a wave can be flipped upside down
how the wave is traveling
ray
line perpindicular to the barrier
normal
law of reflection
angle of incidence is always equal to angle of reflection
bending of a wave due to a chnage in its speed
refraction
refraction waves have the same frequency but
different speeds/wavelengths
when a wave enters a meduam at an angle
refraction occurs b/c one side of the wave moves more slowly than the other side
bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
deffraction
the amount of deffraction depends on
wavelength and size of the obstacle
two or more waves overlap nad combine together
interference
distance is added to the displacement of the other wave
displacement
combine to form a wave to form a larger displacement
constructive interference
forms only if half a wavelength (multiple)
standing wave
where the wave comes together on hte resting position
node
all of the crests and troughs
antinode
frequency of a standing wave can be multiplied
to equal a standing wave
compressions and rarefractions that travel through a medium
longitudinal
many behaviors of sound can be explained by using a few properties-
speed, intensity and loudness, frequency and pitch
sound waves travel fastest in
solids
sound waves travel slowest in
gases
depends on
density of medium and elasticity
rate at which a wave's energy flows through a given area
intensity
vibration that gives energy to the medium
sound
determined by temperature, elasticity& density of the medium
speed of sound
physical response to the intensity of sound, modified by physical factors
loudness
depends on the health of your ears and brain's interpretation of sound waves
loudness
depends on how fast the source of the sound vibrates
frequency
broke the sound barrier
chuck yager
wave's amplitude and distance from source
intensity
every 10 dB the intensity increase
10 folds
if the sound intensity is greater than 120 dB.....
it causes pain
how high or low a note is
pitch
frequency is as how you perceive it, depends on health of your ears/ age
pitch
frequency is
a characteristic of sound
hertz our ears respond to
20 to 20000
dogs Hz
35000
cat Hz
65000
porpoise Hz
150000
higher frequencies than 20000Hz
ultrasonic
SONAR
SOund NAvigation and Ranging
below 20 Hz
infrasonic
change in sound frequency caused by the motion of sound source, motion of listener, or both
doppler effect
as a source of sound approaches
an observer hearsa higher frequency
when the sound source moves away
the observer hears a lower frequency
the outer ear.....
focuses and gathers sound
the middle ear.....
receives and amplifies the vibrations
inner ear
uses nerve endings to sense vibrations and send signals to the brain
ear canal where sound waves strike the eardrums
outer ear
a tightly strechted membrane b/w the outer and middle ear
eardrum
contains the hammer, anvil and stirrup. the eardrum vibrates and strikes the anvil which moves the stirrup back and forth
middle ear
contains the cochlea,the inside has nerves
inner ear
sound is recorded by
converting sound waves into electronic waves into electronic signals that can be reproduced and stored
sound is reproduced by
converting electronic signals back to sound waves
most musical instruments vary pitch by
changing the frequency of standing waves
the response of a standing wave to another wave of the same frequency
resonance
a wave entering a new medium at a right angle will undergo____as one end of the wace changes speed
refraction
a cat can hear frequencies up to
65,000 Hz
The___is a line drawn perpindicular to the barrier in a reflective wave
normal
instead of crests and troughs, as in an ocean wave,a longitudinal wave has ___ and ___-
compressions and rarefractions