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### 88 Cards in this Set

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 studied noise cancellation percy chapman require matter to travel medium highest point on a wave crest lowest point on a wave trough causes medium to vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave travels transverse areas that are close together compression wave's energy moves left to right and is spread out rarefaction p waves primary waves wave that travels along a surface separating two media surface perpindicular to the direction in which the wave travels surface breaking crust vibrates creating SE, carry energy outward seismic waves forces in earth's crust can cause regions of the crust to shift bend or break combination of compressional and transerse waves travel through earth and along its surface objects on earth's surface absorb some energy from seismic waves.... causing them to move and shake both seismic and transvese waves travel through a medium w/o transferring matter distance b/w a point on one wave and the same point on the next crest wavelength measured in m, km, cm wavelength maximum displacement of the medium from its resting position amplitude number of complete cycles in a given time frequency measured in hertz (Hz) frequency time required for one cycle to complete motion that returns to its starting point period 1/frequency period any motion that repeats at regular time intervals periodic motion a wave's frequency equals the frequency of the vibrating source producing the wave formula for wave speed v= wavelength times frequency increasing the frequency of a wave decreases its wavelength the more energy a wave has the greater its amplitude if you assume that waves are traveling at a constant speed then wavelengthis inversely proportional to frequency when a wave bounces off a surface that it cannot pass through reflection reflection does not change the speed or frequency of a wave but a wave can be flipped upside down how the wave is traveling ray line perpindicular to the barrier normal law of reflection angle of incidence is always equal to angle of reflection bending of a wave due to a chnage in its speed refraction refraction waves have the same frequency but different speeds/wavelengths when a wave enters a meduam at an angle refraction occurs b/c one side of the wave moves more slowly than the other side bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening deffraction the amount of deffraction depends on wavelength and size of the obstacle two or more waves overlap nad combine together interference distance is added to the displacement of the other wave displacement combine to form a wave to form a larger displacement constructive interference forms only if half a wavelength (multiple) standing wave where the wave comes together on hte resting position node all of the crests and troughs antinode frequency of a standing wave can be multiplied to equal a standing wave compressions and rarefractions that travel through a medium longitudinal many behaviors of sound can be explained by using a few properties- speed, intensity and loudness, frequency and pitch sound waves travel fastest in solids sound waves travel slowest in gases depends on density of medium and elasticity rate at which a wave's energy flows through a given area intensity vibration that gives energy to the medium sound determined by temperature, elasticity& density of the medium speed of sound physical response to the intensity of sound, modified by physical factors loudness depends on the health of your ears and brain's interpretation of sound waves loudness depends on how fast the source of the sound vibrates frequency broke the sound barrier chuck yager wave's amplitude and distance from source intensity every 10 dB the intensity increase 10 folds if the sound intensity is greater than 120 dB..... it causes pain how high or low a note is pitch frequency is as how you perceive it, depends on health of your ears/ age pitch frequency is a characteristic of sound hertz our ears respond to 20 to 20000 dogs Hz 35000 cat Hz 65000 porpoise Hz 150000 higher frequencies than 20000Hz ultrasonic SONAR SOund NAvigation and Ranging below 20 Hz infrasonic change in sound frequency caused by the motion of sound source, motion of listener, or both doppler effect as a source of sound approaches an observer hearsa higher frequency when the sound source moves away the observer hears a lower frequency the outer ear..... focuses and gathers sound the middle ear..... receives and amplifies the vibrations inner ear uses nerve endings to sense vibrations and send signals to the brain ear canal where sound waves strike the eardrums outer ear a tightly strechted membrane b/w the outer and middle ear eardrum contains the hammer, anvil and stirrup. the eardrum vibrates and strikes the anvil which moves the stirrup back and forth middle ear contains the cochlea,the inside has nerves inner ear sound is recorded by converting sound waves into electronic waves into electronic signals that can be reproduced and stored sound is reproduced by converting electronic signals back to sound waves most musical instruments vary pitch by changing the frequency of standing waves the response of a standing wave to another wave of the same frequency resonance a wave entering a new medium at a right angle will undergo____as one end of the wace changes speed refraction a cat can hear frequencies up to 65,000 Hz The___is a line drawn perpindicular to the barrier in a reflective wave normal instead of crests and troughs, as in an ocean wave,a longitudinal wave has ___ and ___- compressions and rarefractions