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55 Cards in this Set

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Insulin is synthesizes as part of the larger polypeptide chain called the (1)
proinsulin
WHat is proinsulin?
is the larger polypeptide chain in which insulin syntheszed
Circulating insulin lowers blood sugar levels by enhancing membrane transport of glucose into body cells especially (1)
muscle and fat cells
After glucose enters a target cell, the insulin binding triggers what enzymatic activites? (3)
(1)catalyze the oxidation of glucose from ATP production (2)join glucose molecules together to form glycogen (3)convert glucose to fat
What does DM stand for?
diabtes mellitus
What does DM result from?
either hyposecretion or hypersecretion of insulin
NAME
this will result from either the hyposecretion or hyperserection of insulin
DM
What happens when insulin levels increase to much (hypersecretion)?
the person begins to feel nauseated which precpipiates to fight or flight response
What happens when suggars cannot be used a fuel?
are turned into fats
What is lipidemia?
is when there is a high level of fatty acids in the blood bc the body cannot use sugar as fuel
NAME
is when there is a high level of fatty acids in the blood bc the body cannot use sugar as fuel
lipidemia
NAME
these are organic acids
ketones
What are ketones?
are organic acids
What is ketoacidosis?
is when the ketones begin to spill into the urine
NAME
is when ketones begin to spill into the urine
ketoacidosis
when will ketoacidopsis result?
when ketones begin to accumulate in the blood, it causes a pH drops which triggers the ketoacidosis
When ketones begin to accumulate in the blood, the pH drops which triggers (1)
ketoacidosis
How does the nervous system repond to ketoacidosis?
by initaiating rapid deep breathing to blow off the carbon dioxide from the blood and increase the blood pH
The nervous system responds to (1) by initaiting rapid deep breathing to blow off the carbon dioxide from the blood and increase the blood pH
ketoacidosis
what are the three cardinal signs of DM? (3)
(1)polyuria (2)polydipsia (3)polyphagia
Polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia are the three cardinal signs of (1)
DM
What is polyuria?
is a hudge urine output that leads to decreased blood vol and dehydration
NAME
is a hudge urine output that leads to decreased blood vol and dehyrdration
polyuria
What is polydipsia?
refers to excessive thrist
NAME
refers to excessive thrist
polydipsia
What is polyphagia?
refers to excessive hunger and food consumption
NAME
refers to excessive hunger and food consumption
polyhagia
What is hypoglycemia?
is excessive insulin secretion
NAME
refers to excessive insulin secretion
hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia triggers the release of hyperglycemic hormones which cause (1)
anxiety, nervousness, tremors, and weakness
What do the gonads produce?
the steriod sex hormones
NAME
produce the sterioid sex hormones
gonads
Where are the ovaries located?
in the females abdominopelvic cavity
NAME
this femal organ is present in the abdominopelivic cavity
ovaries
What hormones do the ovaries produce? (2)
(1)estrogens (2)progesterone
NAME
this organs produce estrogens and progesterone
ovaries
What are estrogen responsble for?
maturation of the reproductive organs and the appearance of the secoundary sex characteristics
NAME
this organ is responsible for the female reproductive organs and the appearance of the secoundary sex characeteristics
estrogen
What do estrogen and progesterone do together?
they promote breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa
NAME
this (2) hormones promote breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa
estrogen and progesterone
Where is the testes located?
in the scrotum
NAME
this male organ is located in the scrotum
testes
What hormone does the testes produce?
testosterone
NAME
this male organ, produces testosterone
testes
What does the testisterone do during puberty?
(1)initiates the maturation of the male reproductive organs and the appearnce of the secoundary sex charateristics and sex drive
NAME
this hormone initiates the maturation of the male reproductive organs and the appearnce of the secoundary sex charateristics and sex drive
testosterone
What does the pineal gland look like?
is tiny and pine cone shaped
NAME
is tiny and pine cone shaped
pineal gland
Where is the pineal gland located?
hangs from the roof of the third venricle in the diencephalon
NAME
hangs from the roof of the third ventricle in the diecnecephalon
pineal gland
What is the pineal gland?
secretes melatonin
NAME
this gland secretes melatonin
pineal gland
T or F
the endocrine function of the pineal gland is still a mystery
true
What is melatonin?
is an amine hormone derived from serotonin
NAME
is an amine horomone derived from serotonin
melatonin