Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Politics
Power relations wherever they exist
Power
Authority
Coercion
The gov’t holds a monopoly on legitimate force or violence
Revolution
Power-
the ability to get your way even over the resistance of others
Authority-
legitimate power
Coercion-
illegitimate power
Revolution-
armed resistance w/ the intent to overthrow a gov’t
Traditional authority
Based on custom, from your parents. If you are a king, then you inherit declines w/industrialization.
Rational-legal authority
Based on written rules and regulations; AKA beaucratic authority. e.g. voting, president.
Charismatic authority
influential
got their authority because of their traits. You believe in them, you do what they say. e.g. hitler or king tone
True
Authority types can overlap.

t/f
Traditional authority
know who is next in line

you know who is going to be next.
Rational-legal authority
people know how next will be selected.

don't know who will be selected next, but we know how.
Charismatic authority
no rules of succession

there is no standard procedure that follows.
Routinization of charisma
transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either a traditional or rational-legal authority.
Monarchies
Small societies in beginning… grew larger, cities evolved
City-states-
City-states-
independent city whose power radiates outward, bringing the adjacent area under its rule
Democracies
Each U.S. colony was small and independent
Colonies united
power to the people
Representative democracy
Citizenship was a new idea
Democracy
power to the people
Representative democracy
the voters elect reps to make decisions for us.
Dictatorship-
power is seized by an individual and he dictates his will onto the people

it was taken by someone, and they tell people what to do.

e.g. sadam
Oligarchy-
power is held by a small group of individuals

rule all the people
Totalitarianism-
almost total control of a people by the gov’t

form of dictatorship

e.g. sadam and hitler

gov't tells you what you can wear and what you watch on TV.
Dictatorship
Oligarchy
Totalitarianism
What are the 3 types of dictatorships and oligarcharies?
US political system
Political parties and elections
Democrats- assoc. w/ working class
Republicans- assoc. w/ wealthier class
Those elected may cross party lines when voting for legislation
Both support fundamentals of U.S. political philosophy
Democrats-
assoc. w/ working class


aka liberals
Republicans-
assoc. w/ wealthier class

aka conservatives
Democratic Systems in Europe
U.S. elections= majority wins
Europe= proportional representation (seats in legislature divided according to the proportion of votes each political party receives)
Encourages minority parties
Noncentrist parties- represent marginal ideas
Coalition gov’t must form
Noncentrist parties-
represent marginal ideas
Coalition gov’t must form
Europe=
proportional representation (seats in legislature divided according to the proportion of votes each political party receives)
majority wins
In US elections, how do we determine who wins?
Noncentrist parties-
represent marginal ideas

big groups that have ideas that are different or way out their

most form coalitions
Voting patterns
Voting increases w/ age
Non Hispanic whites most likely vote
Voting increases w/ educ. and income
The more people feel they have a stake in the political system, the more likely they are to vote
Voter apathy- indifference
Voter apathy-
indifference

feel like vote doesn't count
Special interest groups- =
people who think alike on an issue and can be mobilized for political action
Lobbyists-
paid to influence legislation on behalf of their clients
Political action committees (PACs)-
solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation
Money
______ buys votes
Functionalist Perspective
When functioning well the state is a balanced system that protects its citizens from one another and from the gov’t
Pluralism-
diffusion of power among many interest groups

prevents one group from getting too much power.
Checks and balances-
separation of powers among 3 branches

legislative
judicial
executive
Conflict perspective
Decisions made by power elite, ruling class
What matters is problems of businesses and wealthy business owners
War
Armed conflict between nations or politically distinct groups

not universal

common

expensive

U.S. top seller of weapons

Dehumanization
To show power, pride, bring democracy.
Why war?
Revenge
Social causes for war?
U.S.
Who in the world is the top seller of weapons?
Dehumanization and war
soldiers view enemy as a thing or target.

people as objects
Beliefs that some things are sacred
Practices, rituals that center around sacred things
A moral community (church) resulting from a group’s beliefs and practices
What are the three elements of religion, as defined by Durkheim?
Beliefs
________ that some things are sacred.
moral
A _______ community (church) resulting from a group’s beliefs and practices
Functional theory of religion
Religion is universal b/c it meets basic needs
Functions of religion
Answers questions about ultimate meaning and afterlife
Emotional comfort
Social solidarity

Provides guidelines for everyday life
Social control- norms and criminal law
Adaptation
Support for gov’t
Supports social change
Dysfunctions of religion
War and terrorism can be based on religion
Justification for persecution
Social solidarity
unites believers

their feeling of belonging

shape values w/people.
Dysfunctions of religion
War and terrorism can be based on religion
Justification for persecution
Symbolic interactionist perspective

religion
Religious symbols
Rituals
Beliefs- values, cosmology
Religious experience- born again
Community- bond w/ one another
Religious symbols
cross, rosary, lotus flower, temples, budda, cow, cresent moon and a star.
Rituals
a ceremony or practices that evokes a sense of "ahh" of the sacred.

e.g. weddings and baptisms
cosmology
Looking at the big picture

ideas that provide a unified picture of the world.
Conflict perspective on religion
Religion supports the status quo and maintains social inequalities
Opium of the people
Reflection of social inequalities
Legitimation of social inequalities
Opium of the people
people are addicted to their religion some people turn to drugs to solve their problems and some people turn to religion to solve their problems. It's addictive.
reflection
the same things found in religion and can be found in the community.

e.g. gender & equality
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Buddhism
Confucianism
What are the world's major religions?
Judaism
Abraham
monotheism
torah- the book they use
Christianity
developed from Judaism
new testament
Jesus
apostales
largest religion in the world
Islam
2nd largest religion in the world
Alla
Muhammad - a profit who spread the word
Koran - the book
5 pillars of faith - fasting, pilgramage to mecca
Hinduism
reincarnation
polytheism
Brahma
India
Nirvana- spiritual perfection; don't need to be reincarnated anymore.
Buddhism
Asian countries
Enlightened one
Meditation
Confucianism
chinese culture
goal is to maintain jen- sympathy and concern for others.
theocracy
gov't is basing its ruling on religion
48
In the US, what percentage of the population is protestant?
25
In the US, what percentage of the pop is catholic?
3
In the US, what percentage of the pop is jewish?
11
In the US, what percentage of the pop is christian non-specific?
7
In the US, what percentage of the pop has no religion?
Cults
New religion w/ few followers
Teachings/practices put it at odds w/ the dominant culture
All religions began as cults
Start w/ a charismatic leader
Requires tight membership of followers

Provides sense of belonging
Represent a break from the past, challenge the social order
sect
Second step towards becoming popular religion
Larger than cult, but still not in sync w/ mainstream society
Emphasize personal salvation, evangelism
Cults
Sect
Church
Ecclesia
What are the 4 types of religious groups?
Church
Formal religion, bureaucratized group
Written prayers, formal sermons
Ecclesia
State religion, gov’t sponsored

gov't and religion are working together to shape society.
Religion in the U.S
70% belong to church/synagogue
Membership varies by location
Church-like groups associated w/ higher incomes- Episcopalians, Jews
Sect-like groups associated w/ lower incomes- Baptists, Evangelicals
Race/ethnicity segregation
Church membership increases w/ age
94% report believe in God, 43% attend weekly