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61 Cards in this Set

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thermosphere
above the mesosphere

filters out harmful x rays and gama rays from the sun
water cycle
never-ending process of water on earth

the sun's radiant energy powers this cycle
dew point
the temperature at which condensation can occur on the ground
relative humidity
the measure of the amount of moisture that is present compared to the that could be held at a specific temperature

if the dew point is close to the air temperature, then this is high

if the dew point is much lower than the air temperature, this is low
aerosol
solids such as dust, salt, pollen, volcanic ash, droplets of acid in the atmosphere
weather
current condition of the atmosphere

occurs only in the troposphere
conduction
a few centimeters of air near the earth's surface is heated by this method

the transfer of energy that results when molecules collide
pressure
the weight of air exerts this

less dense air exerts less of this

more dense exerts more of this
cumulus
middle layer clouds

puffy clouds that form when air currents rise, carrying moisture with them
cumulonimbus
can create the highest level clouds

thunderstorm clouds
exosphere
no clear boundary sepparates thisx layer from space

outermost layer of atmosphere

above the thermosphere
troposphere
atmospheric layer closest to earth's surface
convection
cool air pushes warm air upward creating this kind of current

the process of warm air rising and cool air sinking
atmosphere
the layer of gases surrounding earth

provides earth with all gases necessary to support life

layers based on temperature changes that occur with altitude
ozone
prevents too much radiation from reaching earth's surface
mesosphere
this layer has no ozone, and is closer to the earth than the thermosphere
temperature
the measure of how fast air molecules are moving

molecules moving rapidly makes this high, moving slow makes this low
convection
cool air pushes warm air upward creating this kind of current

the process of warm air rising and cool air sinking
humidity
the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere

when air is warmer, this can be higher
stratus
lowest clouds

form dull grey sheets that cover the entire sky
cirrus
wispy clouds

highest level clouds
nimbus
this name attached to a cloud name means that these clouds can create heavy precipitation
precipitation
when drops of water or ice crystals become too large to be suspended in a cloud, they fall as this

rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow hail

the type depends on the the temp of the atmosphere and and the temp of the earth's surface
stratosphere
the second layer up from the earth's surface
anemometer
device to measure wind speed

used to record the fastest wind speed of 371 km.hr on mt washington, new hampshire, 1934
polar easterlies
winds that move away from the poles
and blow from east to west
prevailing westerlies
major wind cells between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude north and south of the equator
trade winds
blow in an east to west direction toward the equator

also called tropical easterlies
prevailing westerlies
major wind cells between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude north and south of the equator
jet streams
within the zone of prevailing westerlies are bands of strong winds that develop at high altitudes. they are called _____

important because weather systems move along their paths
wind belts
these are created by the corolis effect
air mass
large body of air that develops over a particular region of the earth's surface

There are 6 major types in north america: cool moist air, warm moist air, hot dry air, cold dry air, cool moist air, warm moist air
front
where air masses of different temperatures meet, a boundary between them called a _____ is created

along this the air does not mix
warm front
warm air meets cold air, warm wins

produces long steady precipitation over a large area

after this front passes the sky clears, wind changes direction, and temperature rises
cold fronts
warm air meets cold, cold wins

produces short periods of storms with heavy precipitation

after this passes the skies clear, wind changes direction, and the temperature drops
stationary front
warm air meets cold air, neither wins

can stay in same area for days

makes cloudy skies and precipitation along the boundary of the two air masses
occluded front
the faster wins over the slower, cold or warm can win

produces cloudy weather and precipitation
low pressure

(low pressure center)
air rises, water vapor condenses into clouds and moves in a counter clockwise motion because air flows into it

(high to low- least resistance)
high pressure
air sinks, as it reaches ground it spreads outward and away from the area. as it spreads it begins to turn clockwise (in northern hemisphere) because clouds cannot rise abd condense, few clouds are formed
thunderstorms
develop from cumulonimbus clouds
lightning
bottom of storm cloud has negative charge, earth has positive charge. The two are attracted and rush toward eachother, sparks fly when they meet

the only thing on earth in the plasma state of matter
positive charge
the earth has this charge
negative charge
bottom of cumulonumbus clouds have this charge
tornadoes
caused by updrafts in a low pressure center

seldom lasts longer than 15 minutes
hurricanes
created by updrafts and downdrafts.

begins over oceans, sometimes never reaches shore

rotates counterclockwise around the center.

has an eye
national weather service
carefully monitors the weather in the U.S.

if it believes weather conditions are right for a severe storm to develop in a particular area, they issue a severe weather watch

has their own radio network called NOAA
watch
weather conditions are right for severe weather such as a thunderstorm, tropical storm, hurricane, blizzard, flood, and tornadoes
warning
One of the following types of storms has been spotted either on radar or in person :thunderstorm, tropical storm, hurricane, blizzard, flood, and tornadoes
barometer
instrument used to measure air pressure
rising air
this means low pressure or warm air
sinking air
means cold air or high pressure
counterclockwise
the direction that air travels in a hurricane or low pressure center
ocean
place where most of the moisture for clouds comes from

where hurricaines start
transpiration
evaporation of water from plants
condensation
water molecules change into droplets of liquid water
evaporation
occurs from all bodies of water

when water has enough energy it changes from a liquid to a gas
nitrogen
most abundant element in air
oxygen
second most abundant element in the air

element necessary for life
galileio galilei
the scientist that first proved that air has witght and must contain matter
updrafts
air quickly rising upward, like in a tornado
downdrafts
air quickly moving down, this is what happens in a hurricane to cause an eye