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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
missouri compromise
Henry Clay, said that Missouri be added to the union as a slave state and maine would be cut off from MA and added to the union as a free state to make it an even 12 free and 12 slave states
4 candidates for the election of 1824:
John Quincy Adams (MA)
Andrew Jackson (TN)
Henry Clay (KY)
William Crawford (GA)
What were the results of the election?
Jackson came out on top with 40% of popular vote and 38% electoral vote and 15 more electoral votes than the runner up, Adams
What did the constitution state about elections?
candidates needed 51% of the electoral vote in order to win
What happened to solve the election of 1824?
election was thrown into the House of Representatives. Had to choose top 3 candidates so Clay was out
What did Clay do once he was out of the election?
swung his votes to Adams, who then won as a result. Adams then made Clay is Secretary of State
Tariffs of Abominations
What Southerners called the tariffs because they resented that they had to pay more to help Yankee factories. South flew their flags at half mast
Who issued the "South Carolina Exposition", what was it, and why?
John Calhoun issued it anonymously, it was a nullification doctrine which claimed that states had a right to void a federal law w/ in their borders if they thought it was unconstitutional
Election of 1828
Jackson beat Adams by a landslide
What was different about Jackson from the past six predidents?
the past six were social elites, whereas Jackson grew up in the West and had grown up with the common people
Jacksonian Democrats
Jackson politicians who organized the broad based appeal to the common man that became the hallmark of democrats. promised to protect farmers and workers from the monied elite
What did the Bank War and the nullification crisis do to the Jacksonians?
it stamped them with a long lasting party identity: established Dem. as the enemy of special privelge, friend of the common man, and defender of the union
what was different about Jackon's inauguration and the past ones?
Jackson's was held outdoors, in order to allow the thousands present to see it
what did Jackson do to federal officeholders when he entered office?
began his assault of special privelege by starting a reform of the appointment process for federal officeholders. but in reality Jackson only removed about 1/5 of the officeholders. most new appointees came from as high a status group as the ones he fired
spoils system
a system in which future victorious parties came to give govt job to its supporters and appointees
who was Shulush Homa?
a Choctaw Chief who said "it has been a great many years since our white brothers came across the big waters, and a great many of them have not got civilized yet"
what choice did Jackson offer to the Cherokee?
either settle on a 640 acre reservation, or head west. most chose to stay and settle
who was Sequoya?
son of a white trade and cherokee mother, learned the white people's "talking leaves" because he believed that Indian survival depended on literacy. created an alphabet that had 86 characters
what did the cherokee do in 1827
created and adopted their own constitution. yet no amount of civilization would satisfy whites who wanted the cherokee land, continured to regarding indians as inferior
waht did the legislatures of GA, AL, and MS do in the 1820's?
voted to invalidate federal treaties granting special self-governing status to Indian land.
Indian Removal Act
appropriated funds to relocate the Indians, by force if necessary
how did the cherokee fight back to the removal act?
used the law. took their case to court. chief justice Marshall ruled the cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" that could not be forced by the state of GA to give up its land against its will
what did Jackson then do?
refused to enforce the Supreme Court ruling, and continued his support for removal (would have been impeached today)
John Ross
cherokee leader who tried by failed to find a compromise with the government
trail of tears
in 1838, the most infamous removal, resisting cherokees driven west to oklahoma. 7,000 man army escort commanded by Gen. Winfield Scott, 1/4 of the 16,000 cherokees died along hte way
cherokee farmer, member of the trail of tears journey. along the way he saw soldiers poking his wife with bayonettes, he and several others rebelled, killing a soldier and escaping to the Smoky Mtns. Gen. Scott offered that if Tsali would turn himself in the others could remain in the mountains
what was Tsali's fait?
Tsali, his brothers, and his oldest son turned themselves in and were shot
Black Hawk
"war". old northwest. Sac and Foz indians, led by Black Hawk, attempted to move back to their old tribal grounds in Illinois. Fed. Troops chased the Black Hawk band to Wisconsin, more than 300 indians died in final battle, Black Hawk was taken prisoner
what were the conservatives, eastern reformers, and Protestant missionaries concerned by and what did they do?
they were concerned by Jackson's cavalier disregard for federal treaty obligations. their combined efforts got them w/ in three votes of defeating Jackson's indian removal act
internal improvements
businesses in the Northeast wanted good transportation systems. Westerners wanted new roads, canals and railroads
the Hayne-Webster Debate
Sen. Robert Hayne backed the West's call for a generous land policy from the federal govt. taking sides against northerners who wanted to limit sale of public land
Daniel Webster
MA. argued against Hayne. Webster lessened western support for the South's complaint.
What did South then do and what was the outcome?
South looked to President Jackson for help. but Jackson made clear he would come down in favor of preserving the Union at all costs
what happened in January 1833
Jackson got Congressional authorization to put down nullification by military force.
The Compromise Tariff of 1833
lowered duties to 20%, but spread the reductions over a 10-year period
Jackson's war on the bank
distrusted the 2nd bank of the U.S. believed the banks officers were influencing congress to pass laws friendly to the bank
what did Jackon do in 1832?
when congress voted to renew the banks charter, he vetoed it, accusing the bank of being a monopoly. first time president vetoed a bill becuase he didnt like it. this veto had lasting political consequences
what were the Whigs
the permanent oposition party because people were so angry with Jackson
pet banks
jackson set out to reduce the banks power. ordered all govt money withdrawn. funds were deposited in state banks known as pet banks that offered credit to ppl on easier terms
rise in amount of paper money in circulation made each dollar itself worth less. cost of goods went up. people were inclined to spend even mre freely
Martin Van Buren
jacksonian Democrat, elected president in 1836, the economy began to collapse
panic of 1837
many banks failed. first depression in American history. w/o money, manufacturers had no one who could pay for their goods. 90% of nations factories had to close down
1811. Harrison, former gov of the indiana territory had defeated Tecumseh
election of 1840
harrison was a true westerner. harrison won, first member of whig party to be elected president