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66 Cards in this Set

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inflammation
-defense response to tissue damage
-same tissue response with any type of injury
-prevent spread other tissues
-prepare site for tissue repair
*inflammation always present with inf BUT inf not always present with inflammation
conditions that cause inflammation
pathogen allergen
trauma heat
chemicals radiation
autoimmune reaction
acute inflammation
-healing 2 to 3 W
-usually no residual damage
-neutrophil predominant cell
(first to arrive in 6-12H)
subacute inflammation
same as acute but last longer
-ex infective endocarditis stays Ws to Ms
chronic inflammation
may last years
-predom cells lymphocytes and macrophages
-may result from chs in immune system
S/S of inflammation
-redness - hyperemia from vasodilation
-heat - fever to kill microb - increased metabolism at inflam site
-pain - ch in pH nerve stimulation by histamine prostaglandin; pressure from fluid exudate
-swelling- fluid shift to interstitial space fluid exudate accumulation
-loss of fx (swelling and pain)
systemic response to inflammation
increased WBC (shift to the left)
-malaise
-fever
wbc involved in inflammation
-NEUTROPHILS! segmented are mature banded are immature
-macrophages
-monocyte
-eosinophil
-basophil
shift to the left
seen in pts with acute bacterial inf
-see increased number of band neutrophils (immature neutrophils)
differential count
measure percent of each type of WBC in specimen
-increase in one type cause decrease in another type
direct testing
examine dna for mutations
biochem tests
analyze gene product like enzymes and proteins
karyotyping
investigate #, form, size and arrangement of chromosomes
genetic testing looks for risk
huntingtons chorea
breast and ovarian cancer
colorectal cancer
cystic fibrosis
sickle cell
hemophilia
duchenne muscular dystrophy
stem cells
-allow regeneration of lost tissues
-have ability to differentiate into other cells in the human body
embryonic stem cells
ability to become one of hundreds of types of cells in body
-derived from human embryo cells
-preferred type for medical reseach
adult stem cells
-undifferentiated cells
-small numbers in adult tissues
-primary role- maintain and repair tissues in which they're found
antigen
substance that body sees as foreign that creates an immune response
-most composed of protein
antibody
ig produced by lymphocytes in response to antigens
humoral immunity
when exposed to an antigen for a second time the response is faster and lasts longer
immune response
macrophages are your bodies bouncers
-always on guard to detect what doesn't belong and troublemakers
-when spot out of ordinary call for the SWAT team (Helper T cells)
immune system can backfire and be dangerous to owner
underkill- inadequate response causing inf to get worse (immunocompromised)
-overkill - too aggressive to attack threats (autoimmunity)
effects of aging immune system
-Inc incidence of tumors
-greater susceptibility to inf
-dec cell mediated immunity
-dec delayed hypersensitivity
-dec in size and activity in thymus
-def in T and B cells
-dec primary and secondary antibody responses
why thymus important in immune system
it differentiates and help maturation of T cells
active immunity
-natural
-artificial
-Natural
contact with antigen thru clinical infection
EX chicken pox measles mumps

-Artificial
immunization with antigen
EX immunization with live or killed vaccine
passive immunity
-natural
-artificial
Natural- transplacental and colostrum transfer from mother to child
EX maternal IG in neonates

Artificial
injection of serum from immune human
Ex inj of human gamma globulin
IgG
only one that crosses the placenta
-SECONDARY immune response
-found in plasma and interstitial fluid
IgA
mucous membrances and protect the body surface
-found in body secretions, tears, saliva, breast milk
IgM
PRIMARY immune response
-form antibodies to ABO blood antigens
-found in plasma
IgD
-antigen receptor B cells
-present lymphocyte surface
-assist in differntiation B lympho
-found in plasma
IgE
Causes symptoms of allergic reaction
-defense against parasitic inf
found in plasma and interstitial fluid
what is primary site for filtering foreign antigens from blood
spleen
type 1
rapid hypersensitivity reaction
result from increased production of IgE antibodies
EX
anaphylactic reaction (penicillin most common)
*initial symp edema and itching
allergic reaction
hay fever iodone
allergic rhinitis shellfish
bee sting
latex peanuts
type 2
cytotoxic and cytolytic
body makes special auto-antibodies against self cells
-direct binding IgM or IgG antibodies to antigen on cell surface

EX
hemolytic anemia
thrombocytopenic purpura
hemolytic transfusion reaction (when pt receive the wrong blood type)
goodpastures syndrome (disorder lungs and kidneys circulating antibodies combine with antigen to activate deposits IgG to form along basement membranes)
type 3
complex reaction
excess antigen cause immune complex to form in the blood
-circulating complex lodge in small bl v walls
-deposits trigger inflam
EX
rheumatoid arthrits
SLE
serum sickness
type 4
delayed hypersensitivity reaction
-cell mediated response
-reactive cell T-lymphocyte
-T-cells are sensitive from previous exposure so antigen releases chem and macrophages to destroy antigen
-24-48 hrs
EX
contact dermatitis transplant rejection
what secretes hormones that stimulate maturation and differentiation in t lymphs
thymus
lymphocytes
produced in bone marrow and differentiate into B and T lymphocytes
B lymph
differentiate into plasma cells when activated
T lymph
cells migrate from bone marrow to thymus become T cells
2 types T cells
T cytotoxic
T Helper
T cytotoxic
attack antigen on cell membrane of foreign pathogen and release sub that kills it
T helper
regulate cell mediated and humoral antibody response
-TH1 - stimulate phagocyte-mediated ingestion and killing microbes
-TH2 - stimulate eosinophil-mediated kill parasites involved allergic response
Natural Killer cells
L lymph
-recog and kill virus in inf cells, tumor cells, transplanted grafts
*sig role surveillance malignant cell ch
cytokines
instruct cells to ch life, differentiate, secretion, activity
systemic anaphylactic reaction
-ensure pt airway
-mild symptoms - 1:1000 or 0.2 to 0.5 epinephrine subQ
-1:10,000 or 0.5 ml IV at 5-10 min interval for severe
-O2 and lay flat and elevate legs
-keep warm
-maintain bp with fluids, vol expander, vasopressors (dopamine)
-benadryl IM or IV
-histamine blockers (tagamet
ongoing monitoring systemic anaphylactic reaction
Vs
-respiratory effort
-O2
-LOC
-cardiac rhythm
-anticipate intubation
RAST
radioallergoosorbent test
diagnostic test for IgE antibodies to specific allergen
-help to confirm reactivity to various foods or drugs
scratch or prick test
drop allergen placed on skin
-pricking device used so it can enter skin
intradermal test
injected under skin like TB
-check 5 to 10 M
patch test
allegen placed on skin check in 42 to 78 hours
antihistamine
best for allergic rhinitis and urticaria
-block effect histamine
-take as soon as symptoms appear
sympathomimetic &
decongestant
-major epinephrine (adrenalin)
-drug of choice to treat anaphylactic reaction
corticosteroids
effective relieving symptoms of hay fever
antipruritic
-protect skin relief from itching
*caution cuz risk of agranulocytosis
-calamine lotion, coal tar solution
-trimeprazine (temaril)
-methdilazine (tacaryl)
mast cell stabilizing drugs
inhibit release histamine and other agents after antigen IgE interaction
-manage hay fever and asthama
leukotriene receptor antagonist
block the major mediator of allergic inflam process
immunotherapy
recommended treatment when allergen can't be avoided
-give small amount allergen and inc strength with hyposensitivity reached
-GOAL
block IgG so levels are high
*imp to admin away from jt so tourniquet can be applied
Type IV allergic contact dermatitis
skin reaction to chem used in manufacturing process
-delayed reaction within 6-48 hours
type 1
alleric reaction to latex
skin redness to anaphylactic shock
-occur with mins
latex food syndrome
-banana avocado
chestnut kiwi
tomato water chesnut
guava hazelnut
potato peach
grape apricot
apheresis
seperate components of blood followed by removal of 1+ components
common organ transplants
corneas
kidney
skin
bone marrow
heart valves
bone
connective tissue
crossmatch for organ tranplant
done at time living donor is evaluated and just before surgery for deceased donors
-use serum from recipient mixed with donor lymp to test cytotoxic antibodies to potential donor organ
rejection
organ transplant
if donor not perfect match
-prevent close matching ABO,Rh, HLAs
hyperacute rejection
acute rej
chronic rej
-minutes to hours after
-occurs days to months after
-over months and years is irreversible