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37 Cards in this Set

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Development of industrialization in three phases
- Manufacturers made products by dividing tasks among workers
- Manufacturers built factories to bring specialized workers together
- Workers used machinery to perform work
Elias Howe
Invented sewing machine
Robert Fulton
Changed river travel with his steamboat
Steamboats
Carried goods and passengers more quickly and cheaply
Spurred development of cities
GREAT WESTERN -- first steam-powered ocean-going vessel, iron ship
Clipper Ships
- ships with sleek hulls and tall sails
- sails average of 300 miles per day
- FLYING CLOUD, SEA WITCH, CUTTY SHARK, CHAMPION OF THE SEAS
Locomotives
- ROCKET -> first steam-powered locomotive [Britain]
- TOM THUMB
- United Midwest and East
Connecting the country [transportation]
- Development of east-west canal and rail network allowed graink livestock,and dairy products to move directly from Midwest to East
- Merchants could sell goods at lower prices
- Railroads --> settlement and industrialization of Midwest [towns and industries developed]
- Railroads --> gave farmers access to new markets where they could sell products
Peter Cooper
-Designed and built the first American steam locomotive in 1830
- TOM THUMB lost in race against a horse-drawn train in Baltimore
Samuel Morse
- Morse code
- telegraphs
- What hath God wrought
Richard Hoe
Invented steam cylinder rotary press
Prompted start of dozens of newspapers
John Deere
Steel-tipped plow -- easily cut through hard-packed sod of the prairies
Thresher
separated grain from stalk
Cyrus McCormick
-Designed and constucted mechanical reaper
-mechanical reaper -- sped up harvesting of wheat
- Harvested grain 4x faster than sickle
- Growing wheat became profitable
- Raising wheat would remain main economic activity in Midwestern praires
Cash crops
- Some crops for themselves and sold some for cash
Working Conditions
- Facotry systems developed --> working conditions worsened
- Owners wanted employees to work longer hours in order to produce more goods [averaged 11.4 hours a day]
- Accidents became more common [dangerous conditions]
- Unpleasant conditions : hot & stifling or too cold
- Low wages --> ended up living in slums near factories
Attempts to Organize
Trade unions --> organizations of workers with the same trade
Strikes --> struck to get higher wages and to limit workday to 10 hours
- General Trades Union of New York
African American Workers
- Racial prejudice
- Discrimination
- Couldn't vote in most states
- Not allowed to attend public schools and public facilities [segregated schools and hospitals]
- Lowest paying jobs
Sarah G. Bagley
- Founded Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization
- Petitioned state legislature for 10-hour day in 1845
Immigrants [Ireland]
- Brought on by terrible potato famine
- Too poor to buy land --> took low-paying factory jobs, performed manual labor, or became servants
- 1/3 Irish
Immigrants [German]
- Sought work and opportunity
- Left homes because of a failure of a democratic revolution in Gemany
- Opened businesses and bought farms
- Prospered in many parts of countries
Impact of Immigration
- Different languages, customs, religions, ways of life
Immigrants & prejudice
Nativists -- people opposed to immigrations
- Know-Nothing Party --> supported former president Millard Fillmore, but lost to James Buchanan, Democrat
Why cotton crops rose
- Tobacco depended on foreign markets and wore out land too quickly
- Sugarcane --> "rich man's crop" [irrigation canals and machinery
Cotton gin
- machine that removed seeds from cotton fibers
- cotton gin produced fiber quickly --> farmers wanted to grow more cotton --> demand for more slaves
Eli Whitney
invented cotton gin
Cotton Rules Deeps South
- Economies of Deep South and Upper South were different
- Upper --> tobacco, hemp, wheat, veggies
- Deep --> cotton, rice, sugarcane
- Value of enslaved people increased
- Upper became center for sale and transport of enslaved people throughout region
Barriers to Industry
- Cotton very profitable --> Southerners remained farming
- Lack of capital --> believed economy based on cotton and slavery would prosper
- Market for manufactured goods in Sourth smaller than North
- Simply did not want industry to flourish there
Southern Factories
- Believed that South was becoming dependent on North for manufactured goods
William Gregg
Opened own textile factory in South Carolina
Joseph Reid Anderson
Took over Tredegar Iron Works and made it one of the nation's leading producers of iron
Southern Transportation
- Natural waterways provided chief means for transportating goods
- Few canals and roads were poor
- Southern cities grew slower
Yeomen
- Farmers who did not have slaves
- Made up largest group of whites in South
- Grew crops for own use and to sell
- Traded produce to local merchants and workers for goods and services
Tenant farmers
- Farmers who worked on landlord's estate
- Rented land
Enslaved Workers
- Long and grueling day
- Lived in slave cabins
- Faced constant uncertainty --> breaking up of family
- Esablished network of relatives and friends
- Christianity
- Passtionate beliefs of Southern slaves found experession in spritual
Slave codes
- Aimed to prevent rebellions
- Prohibited slaves from assembling in large groups or leaving from property
- Made crime to teach slaves how to read and write
Nat Turner
Popular religious leader among his fellow slaves, taught himself how to read and write
- 1831- Led group of followers on brief, violent rampage
- Hanged , but rebellion frightened white Southerners --> more severe slave codes
Free African Americans
- Cities provided free African Americans with opportunities to form own communities
- Lives were far from secure
- Passed laws that limited rights of free African Americans
- Denied equal share in economic and political life