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26 Cards in this Set

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law of segregation
Mendelian principle explaining the disappearance of a specific trait in the F1 generation and its reappearence in the F2 generation
homologous chromosomes
paired chromosomes with genes for the same traits arranged in the same order
homozygous
having identical alleles for particular trait
dipliod
a cell with two copies of each type of chromosomes is considered to be a dipliod (2n) cell
allele
gene form for each variation fo a trait of an organism
dihybrid cross
fertilization between two organisms to study the inheritance of two different traits
crossing over
exchange of genetic material by non-sister chromatids during late prophaseI of meiois resulting in new combinations of alleles
dominant
visible; observable traits of an organism that masks a recessive form of the trait
heterozygous
having nonidentical alleles for a particular trait
genetic recombination
major source of genetic variation resulting from crossing over or random assortment
egg
female sex cell or gamete
fertilization
fusion of male and female gametes
law of independent assortment
Mendelian principle explaining that different traits are inherited in dependently if on different chromosomes
gamete
male and female sex cells; sperm and eggs
genetics
branch of biology that studies heredity
genotype
an organism's gene combination
haploid
a cell of an organism that has half the number(n) of chromosomes; one of each type of chromosomes that makes up the genotype
heredity
passing on of charateristics from parents offspring; first major studies were done by Gregor Mendel in the 1800s
sexual reproduction
reproductive pattern in which haploid gametes fuse to produce a diploid zygote, which then develops by mitosis into a new organism
sperm
male sex cell or gamete
zygote
fertilzed egg; has a diploid (2n)number of chromosomes; develops into a multicellular organism by mitosis
trait
inherited characteristic in simple Mendelian inheritance can be either dominant or recessive
recessive
hidden trait of an organism that is masked by a dominant trait
pollination
in a flower the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
phenotype
outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes
meiosis
cell division in which one diploid (2n) cell produces four haploid(n)cells called sex cells or gametes, which have half the number of chromosomes as a body cell of a parent