Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did Keller Breland do?
Trained a chicken to pull a string connected to a pistol trigger only when he was not there

S^D: Brelandless target
S^delta: Breland
Discriminative Stimulus (S^D)
-A stimulus in the presence of which
-a particular response will be reinforced or punished
S-delta (S^delta)
-A stimulus in the presence of which
-a particular response will not be reinforced or punished
Properties of discriminative contingencies
-Two contingencies: S^D and S^delta
-Before condition is the same for both
-Response is the same for both
-The S^delta contingency is ALWAYS extinction or recovery
Discrimination Training Procedure
-Reinforcing or punishing a response
-in the presence of one stimulus
-and extinguishing it
-or allowing it to recover
-in the presence of another stimulus
Stimulus discrimination (stimulus control)
-The occurrence of a response more frequently in the presence of one stimulus
-than in the presence of another,
-usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure
In the taxi example, what is the S^D and what is the S^delta?
S^D: taxi with no passengers
S^Delta: taxi with passengers
How did Butterfield and Staats teach Jose to learn?
Special stories with words that acted as S^Ds for saying those words;
correct responses = tokens
What was an effective punishment-based S^D for Juke?
sight of fluid boiling in the pan
Punishment-Based S^D
-A stimulus in the presence of which
-a response will be punished
Skinner Box: Nondiscriminated, nondifferential reinforcement procedure
Rudolph's lever presses are reinforced with water, regardless of their force or whether the light is on or off
Skinner Box: Differential-Reinforcement Procedure
Rudolph's lever presses are reinforced only when they are >20 of force
Skinner Box: Stimulus-Discrimination procedure
Rudolph's presses are reinforced only when the light is on
Which procedure has one response class and two stimuli?
Stimulus discrimination
Which procedure has one response class and one stimulus?
Which procedure has one stimulus and two response classes?
Response differentiation
Which procedure has two stimuli and two response classes?
Combined differentiation and discrimination
Skinner box: differential punishment procedure
Lever press produces shock as well as food if force is less than 20 grams
Skinner Box: stimulus-discrimination procedure based on punishment
Lever press produces shock as well as food if it occurs when light is off
What was the discrimination training procedure Mae designed?
Had teachers show various objects of various colors to the children

-praise for correct color and object
What did Mae discover when observing the class?
The children whose teacher required them to use proper color names to get toys they wanted used color names more often
Incidental teaching
-The planned use of
-behavioral contingencies,
-differential reinforcement, and
-discrimination training,
-in the student's everyday environment
Transfer of training: Why didn't the children use color-noun combinations outside of the classroom?
Those responses had not been reinforced outside of the classroom

no S^D of the teacher prompting them
"naming" an object
Verbal behavior
verbal relation where the form of the response is determined by an establishing operation;

term for "requesting"
What is the mand reinforced by?
The receipt of the object or event requested, not by praise or other reinforcers

-specifies its own reinforcer
What is the mand caused by?
Establishing operation
What is a tact caused by?
A discriminative stimulus (S^D)
What is a tact reinforced by?
-A supplemental stimulus
-that raises the probability of a correct response
What were some examples of prompts in the book so far?
Jose: Butterfield told him the correct response and had him repeat it (verbal prompt)

Bunny: Madame Cupet moved her into the correct position (physical prompt)
Is a S^prompt a type of S^D?
What did Mae do with Jimmy?
Performed a task analysis and started a discrimination-training procedure to teach him how to sit down using physical prompts
Preattending skills
orienting yourself toward the S^D
What do preattending skills require?
-Sensory capability
-Conspicuous stimulus
-Discrimination-training procedure
How is an S^D different from the "before" condition?
The before condition makes the after condition reinforcing, and the S^D doesn't.

The S^D is associated with an increased likelihood of reinforcers, and the before condition isn't
Operandum (manipulandum)
-That part of the environment
-the organism operates (manipulates)
What is the operandum in the Skinner box?
The lever
What is the light in the box?
The S^D
Can the lever be both operandum and S^D for the same response?
What is the box?
The environment containing the operandum
Can you have an S^D without an S^delta?
Undiscriminated reinforcement contingency
There is no S^d associated with the reinforcement contingency
Discriminated reinforcement contingency
The reinforcement contingency is in operation only when the S^D is present, not when the S^delta is present
What is an example of an undiscriminated punishment contingency?
Velma and Gerri's bruxism
Criteria for Diagramming Discriminated Contingies
1. S^delta contingency test (If there's no S^Delta, there's no S^D)
2. Same "before" condition test
3. Same "response" test
4. Extinction/recovery test (S^delta is always extinction or recovery)
5. Operandum test (different from the S^D?)
6. Different "before" condition test (the S^D is different from "before")