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### 47 Cards in this Set

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 What did Keller Breland do? Trained a chicken to pull a string connected to a pistol trigger only when he was not there S^D: Brelandless target S^delta: Breland Discriminative Stimulus (S^D) -A stimulus in the presence of which -a particular response will be reinforced or punished S-delta (S^delta) -A stimulus in the presence of which -a particular response will not be reinforced or punished Properties of discriminative contingencies -Two contingencies: S^D and S^delta -Before condition is the same for both -Response is the same for both -The S^delta contingency is ALWAYS extinction or recovery Discrimination Training Procedure -Reinforcing or punishing a response -in the presence of one stimulus -and extinguishing it -or allowing it to recover -in the presence of another stimulus Stimulus discrimination (stimulus control) -The occurrence of a response more frequently in the presence of one stimulus -than in the presence of another, -usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure In the taxi example, what is the S^D and what is the S^delta? S^D: taxi with no passengers S^Delta: taxi with passengers How did Butterfield and Staats teach Jose to learn? Special stories with words that acted as S^Ds for saying those words; correct responses = tokens What was an effective punishment-based S^D for Juke? sight of fluid boiling in the pan Punishment-Based S^D -A stimulus in the presence of which -a response will be punished Skinner Box: Nondiscriminated, nondifferential reinforcement procedure Rudolph's lever presses are reinforced with water, regardless of their force or whether the light is on or off Skinner Box: Differential-Reinforcement Procedure Rudolph's lever presses are reinforced only when they are >20 of force Skinner Box: Stimulus-Discrimination procedure Rudolph's presses are reinforced only when the light is on Which procedure has one response class and two stimuli? Stimulus discrimination Which procedure has one response class and one stimulus? Neither Which procedure has one stimulus and two response classes? Response differentiation Which procedure has two stimuli and two response classes? Combined differentiation and discrimination Skinner box: differential punishment procedure Lever press produces shock as well as food if force is less than 20 grams Skinner Box: stimulus-discrimination procedure based on punishment Lever press produces shock as well as food if it occurs when light is off What was the discrimination training procedure Mae designed? Had teachers show various objects of various colors to the children -praise for correct color and object What did Mae discover when observing the class? The children whose teacher required them to use proper color names to get toys they wanted used color names more often Incidental teaching -The planned use of -behavioral contingencies, -differential reinforcement, and -discrimination training, -in the student's everyday environment Transfer of training: Why didn't the children use color-noun combinations outside of the classroom? Those responses had not been reinforced outside of the classroom no S^D of the teacher prompting them Tacting "naming" an object Verbal behavior language Manding verbal relation where the form of the response is determined by an establishing operation; term for "requesting" What is the mand reinforced by? The receipt of the object or event requested, not by praise or other reinforcers -specifies its own reinforcer What is the mand caused by? Establishing operation What is a tact caused by? A discriminative stimulus (S^D) What is a tact reinforced by? Praise Prompt -A supplemental stimulus -that raises the probability of a correct response What were some examples of prompts in the book so far? Jose: Butterfield told him the correct response and had him repeat it (verbal prompt) Bunny: Madame Cupet moved her into the correct position (physical prompt) Is a S^prompt a type of S^D? No What did Mae do with Jimmy? Performed a task analysis and started a discrimination-training procedure to teach him how to sit down using physical prompts Preattending skills orienting yourself toward the S^D What do preattending skills require? -Sensory capability -Conspicuous stimulus -Discrimination-training procedure How is an S^D different from the "before" condition? The before condition makes the after condition reinforcing, and the S^D doesn't. The S^D is associated with an increased likelihood of reinforcers, and the before condition isn't Operandum (manipulandum) -That part of the environment -the organism operates (manipulates) What is the operandum in the Skinner box? The lever What is the light in the box? The S^D Can the lever be both operandum and S^D for the same response? no What is the box? The environment containing the operandum Can you have an S^D without an S^delta? No Undiscriminated reinforcement contingency There is no S^d associated with the reinforcement contingency Discriminated reinforcement contingency The reinforcement contingency is in operation only when the S^D is present, not when the S^delta is present What is an example of an undiscriminated punishment contingency? Velma and Gerri's bruxism Criteria for Diagramming Discriminated Contingies 1. S^delta contingency test (If there's no S^Delta, there's no S^D) 2. Same "before" condition test 3. Same "response" test 4. Extinction/recovery test (S^delta is always extinction or recovery) 5. Operandum test (different from the S^D?) 6. Different "before" condition test (the S^D is different from "before")