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21 Cards in this Set

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age structure
population's balance of old and young people
birth cohort
set of people who were born durign the same era and who face similiar societal circumstancesbrought out by their shared position in the overall age structure of the population
cohort effect
phenomenon in which members of a cohort tend to experience a particular life course event of rite of passage-puberty, marriage, childbearing, graduation, entry into the workforce, death-at roughly the same time
demographer
sociologist who studies trends in population characteristics
demographic transition
stage of societal development in unindustrial countries marked by growing life expectancy and high birth rates; concept used to explain why populations in less developed countries grow faster than those in more developed countries
migration
the movement of populations from one geographic are to another
period effect
phenomenon in which a historical event or major social trend cotributes to the unique shape and outlook of birth cohort
comparable worth (pay equity)
Principle that women and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training ought to be paid equally
institutional sexism
Subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of economics, law politics, and other social institutions
matriarchy
Female-dominated society that gives higher prestige and value to women than to men
objectification
practice of treating peoples as objects
patriarchy
male-dominated society in which cultural beliefs and values give higher prestige and value to men than to women
sexism
sysem of beliefs that asserts the inferiority of one sex that justifies gender-based inequality
anomie
condition in which rapid change has disrupted society's ability to adequately regulate and control its members and the old rules that once governed people's life no longer seem to apply
countermovement
collective action designed to prevent or reverse changes sought or accomplished by an earlier social movement
cultural diffusion
process by which beliefs, technology, customs and other elements of culture spread from one group or society to another
ideology
coherent ssytem of beliefs values and ideas
postindustrial society
society in which knowledge, the control of information, and service industries are more important elements of the economy than agriculture or manufacturing and production
reform movement
collective action that seeks to change limited aspects of a society but does not seek to alter or replace major social institutions
revolutionary movement
collective action that attempts to overthrow an entire social system and replace it with another
social movement
continuous, large scale, organized collective action motivated by the desire to enact, stop, or reverse change in some area of society