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16 Cards in this Set

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Aztec
Last indep. state in the Valley of Mexico;

captl was Tenochtitlan.

Thrived bet. A.D. 1325 and 1520(Spanish Conquest)
bronze
An alloy of arsenic and copper or of tin and copper
chiefdom
ranked society with unequal rel.s among individuals and villages;

smaller villages under authority of leaders in larger ones;

has 2-level settlement hierarchy
cuneiform
Early Mesopotamian writing;

used a stylus to write wedge-shaped impressns on raw clay;

from Latin for wedge
egalitarian society
found most typicly among hunter-gatherers, lacks status distinctions except for those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements
Halafian
early (7.5k-6500 B.P.) and widespread pottery style, 1st found in N'ern Syria;

refers to a delicate ceramic style AND to the period when CHIEFDOMS FIRST EMERGED.
Mesopotamia
area bet. Tigris and Euphrates;

now s'ern Iraq and sw'ern Iran;

location of FIRST CITIES AND STATES
metallurgy
knowledge of the properties of metals, incl. their extractn and processng and the manufacture of metal tools
multivariate
involving multiple factors, causes, or variables.
primary states
states that arise on their own (thru competition among chiefdoms), and not thru contact w/otr state societies.
ranked society
type of society w/hereditary inequality but NOT SOCIAL STRATIFICATION;

indiv.'s r ranked in terms of their genealogical closeness to the chief, but there is a continuum of status, w/many indiv.s and kin grps. ranked about equally.
settlement hierarchy
ranked series of communities differing in size, fxn, and type of building;

a 3-lvl settlement hierarchy indicates STATE organization.
smelting
the high-temperature process by which pure metal is produced from an ore
state
form of social and political organization with a FORMAL, CENTRAL GOV and division of society into CLASSES
stratification
stratified societies have SHARP SOCIAL DIVISIONS--strata--based on unequal access to wealth and power, e.g. into noble and commoner classes
Teotihuacan
A.D. 100 to 700;

FIRST STATE IN THE VALLEY OF MEXICO and EARLIEST MAJOR MESOAMERICAN EMPIRE