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16 Cards in this Set

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Unlearned reinforcer
-A stimulus, event, or condition that is a reinforcer,
-though not as a result of pairing with another reinforcer
What is the name of the chapter?
Learned reinforcers and Learned Aversive Conditions
Learned Reinforcer
(secondary or conditioned reinforcer)

-A stimulus, event, or condition that is a reinforcer
-because it has been paired with another reinforcer
Pairing procedure
-The immediate pairing of a neutral stimulus with
-a reinforcer or aversive condition
Value-altering principle
-The pairing procedure
-converts a neutral stimulus into
-a learned reinforcer or learned aversive condition
Generalized learned reinforcer
(generalized secondary reinforcer, generalized conditioned reinforcer)

-A learned reinforcer that is a reinforcer
-because it was paired with a variety of other reinforcers
-when the organism has been deprived of those other reinforcers
Why are generalized learned reinforcers effective?
Because the organism is usually deprived of at least some of the backup reinforcers
Token economy
-A system of generalized learned reinforcers
-in which the organism that receives those generalized reinforcers can save them
-and exchange them for a variety of backup reinforcers
-later
Learned aversive condition
(secondary or conditioned aversive condition)

-A stimulus, event, or condition that is an aversive condition
-because it has been paired with another aversive condition
Generalized learned aversive stimulus
-A learned stimulus or condition,
-that is aversive because it was paired
-with a variety of other
-aversive stimuli or conditions and/or
-the loss of a variety of other reinforcers
Extinction vs the Unlearning of Learned reinforcers and aversive conditions
Unlearning of a learned reinforcer consists of no longer pairing the learned reinforcer with the original reinforcer.

Extinction consists of no longer making a reinforcer contingent on a response.
Conditional stimulus
-Elements of a stimulus
-have their value or function
-only when they are combined;
-otherwise, the individual elements are relatively neutral
What do we really mean when we say we "value" something?
They are a powerful reinforcer for us.

Their violation is a powerful aversive condition.
How do you rule out the environmental enrichment view?
Make potential reinforcers noncontingent on responses.
How do you rule out chance?
Use a reversal design.
Imprinted Reinforcer
-A reinforcer that acquires its unlearned reinforcing properties
-as a result of being the first stimulus
-the organism contacts during a brief period after birth