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61 Cards in this Set

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hydrocephalus

(congenital d/o)
abnormal fluid (CSF) accumulation in brain
spina bifida

(congenital d/o)
imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect) cause congenital defects in lumbar spinal column
spina bifida occulta
vertebral defect covered over with skin and only seen with x-ray/imaging
spina bifida cystica
cyst like protrusions over lumbar
meningocele

(type of spina bifida)
meninges stick outside of body
myelomeningocele

meningomyelocele

(type of spina bifida)
spinal cord & meninges stick out of body
alzheimer disease
brain d/o with gradual/ progressive mental deterioration (dementia) with personality changes & impairment to daily function
senile plaques
in AD; caused by neuron & neurofibrillary tangle degernation in cerebral cortex
neurofibrillary tangles
bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasm of neuron (occurs in AD)
amyloid
protein in AD that occur in neurofib tangles, senile plaques & blood vessels
amyorophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
degenerative d/o of mother neurons in spinal cord & brain stem
epilepsy
chronic brain d/o with recurrent seizures
tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal or ictal events)
sudden loss of consciousness, falling, then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions (twitching, jerking of limbs)

often preceded by aura (peculiar sensation before seizure onset)
absence seizures (petit mal seizures)
minor form of seizure with momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings
postictal events
neuro sx after seizures
huntington disease
hereditary d/o with degenerative changes in cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements & mental deterioration
multiple sclerosis (MS)
myelin sheath deteriorates in CNS & replaced with sclerotic plaques of tissue
demyelination (in MS)
loss of myelin insulation
gait
manner of walking
myasthenia gravis (MG)
autoimmune neuromuscular d/o with weakness (-asthenia) of voluntary muscles
palsy
paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
cerebral palsy
partial paralysis & lack of muscular coordination due to hypoxia or loss of blood flow to cerebrum during prego or perinatal period
bell palsy
paralysis on one side of face
parkinson disease (parkinsonism)
degeneration of DA neurons in basal ganglia leading to tremors, muscle weakness, & slowness of movement
palliative
sx relief but not curing
tourette syndrome
involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds & inappropriate words

tics - twitching of eyelid & facial muscles with verbal outbursts
herpes zoster (shingles)
viral infection affecting peripheral nerves; eruption of blisters in patter than follows path of peripheral nerves around body trunk
dermatome
skin innervation by spinal or cranial nerves
meningitis
meninges inflammation; leptomeningitis
HIV encephalopathy
brain disease & dementia occurring wit AIDS
brain tumor
abnormal growth of brain tissue & meninges
gliomas
tumor of glial cells

ex: astrocytoma, oligodendroglimoma, ependymoma

most malignant form of astrocytoma - gliobastoma multiforme
meningiomas
meninges brain tumor;
cerebral edema
brain swelling
cerebral concussion
temp brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury; usually gone w/i 24 hours
cerebral contusion
bruising of brain tissue resulting from head trauma; neurologic deficits last longer than 24 hours
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

cerebral infarction

types?
stroke; disruption of normal blood supply to brain

3 types of strokes: thrombotic, embolic, hemorrhagic
thrombotic stroke
blood clot (thrombus) in arteries leading to brain - blocks blood flow
embolic stroke
embolus (dislodged clot) travels to cerebral arteries & blocks small vessels
hemorrhagic stroke
blood vessel (like cerebral artery) breaks & bleeds out
aneurysm
enlarged, weakened area of arterial wall that can rupture & lead to hemorrhage & stroke
astrocytoma
malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells)
blast
immature cells
dementia
mental decline & deterioration
demyelination
destruction of myelin on nerve axons (MS)
dopamine
CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in PD
ictal event
pertaining to sudden, acute onset (convulsions of epileptic seizures)
occlusion
blockage
thymectomy
thymus gland removal as tx for myasthenia gravis
TIA
transient ischemic attack
CSF analysis
samples of CSF examined

measures: H2O, glucose, Na+, Cl-, protein, # of RBC & WBC

can detect tumor cells, bacteria, & viruses

used to dx infection, tumors or MS
cerebral angiography

(X-ray)
x-ray imaging of brain arterial blood vessel system after injecting contrast into thigh

dx - brain vascular disease (aneurysm, occlusion, hemorrhage)
CT of brain
x-ray generating cross-sectional image of brain & spinal cord

constrst injected IV & leaks through BBB from blood vessels to brain

shows tumors, hemorrhage & blood clots
myelography
x-ray of spinal canal after constrst injected into subarachnoid space
MRI of brain
magnetc/radio waves make image of brain in 3 planes

used with CT for diagnosing brain/spinal cord lesions

good for viewing strokes, tumors, changes by trauma & AD
MRA (magnetic resonance angiography)
makes images of BV using MR techniques
positron emission tomography (PET)
computerized radiologic technique that uses radioactive glucose to image metabolic activity of celols

help with giving info on brain function for AD, stroke, schizo, & epilepsy
doppler/ultrasound studies
sound waves detect blood flow in carotid & intracranial arteries

detect occlusions in blood vessels
electroencephalography (EEG)
recording of brain electrical activity

helps show seizure activity
lumbar puncture (LP)

spinal tap
w/d CSF b/t 2 lumbar vertbrae
stereotactic radiosurgery
specialized instrument used to locate & treat targets in brain

gamma knife (high energy radiation beam) treats deep/usually inaccessible intracranial brain tumors & abnormal blood vessel masses (arteriovenous malformations) w/o surgery

gives proton radiation