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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
is a charged atom
ion
metals that tend to form positive ions
cations
nonmetals that tend to form negative ions
anions
the charge on a single atom
oxidation number
why can transition elements have variable oxidation numbers
they have the ability to lose electrons from both the outer level and the outer sublevel
increases down the groups and increases across a period until 9
density
increases down the groups and decreases across the periods
atomic radii
what is atomic radii
size of an atom
the result of more electrons between the nucleus and the outer level electrons lessens
shielding effect
what is ionic radii
size of an ion
the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
ionization energy
the energy needed to remove the first electron
1st ionization energy
decreases down a group and increases across a period
ionization energy
3 things of metals
lose electrons in reactions
big atoms more reactive
francium is most reactive
3 things of nonmetals
gain electrons in reactions
small atoms more reaactive
fluorine is most reactive
how effective is the nucleus at holding on to it's electrons
effective nuclear charge
if an atoms nucleus is very effective it pulls the electrons in tightly making the atom smaller and more difficult to remove electrons from
higher ionization energy
if an atoms nucleus is not very effective it allows the electrons in spread out away from the nucleus making the atom larger and easier to remove electrons from
lower ionization energy
the most electrons that can be taken
7 e-
which level goes first
outer level
center for density
Ir
bottom center
towards higher density
bottom left
bigger size
Fr is biggest
Largest Element
ions are smaller
positive ions
ions are larger
negative ions
use the roman numerals above each group up to find __________ or use 2+ if too high(past 7)
predicting the oxidation number of metals
count over to the closest Noble Gas and assign a negative oxidation number
predictiong oxidation numbers for nonmetals
I
1
II
2
III
3
IV
4
V
5
VI
6
VII
7
negative oxidation numbers
gain electrons
positive oxidation numbers
lose electrons
why do transition elements exhibit more than one possible oxidation number
most have 2 valence e-