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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Arab nomads who organized into clans
a city in western Arabia in which religious pilgrims came to worship.
the one God of Islam.
prophet who was born in Mecca, in a powerful family. He received little schooling and began working in trade when very young. He became and trader and business manager and married Khadijah. He spent much time meditating, and one day when meditating in a cave he heard the angel Gabriel talking to Muhammad for Allah. Muhammad believed Allah had talked to him and began to teach that Allah was the one and only God. He formed the basis of Islam. He then left Mecca because of resistance to Islam and mo0ved to Yathrib. In Yathrib Islam prospered. He eventually became a military leader of Medina (new name of Yathrib) and forced Meccans to surrender. Through this he converted many new people.
"submission to the will of Allah." The monotheistic religion formed by Muhammad. Has no clergy, worshipped one God-Allah, worships in mosques. Holy book- Qur'an.
"one who had submitted." Name for the followers of Islam.
the migration by Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib.
Five Pillars
five duties to be carried out by each Muslim: 1. Faith-to testify that Allah is the only God. 2. Prayer-pray 5 times a day towards Mecca. 3. Alms-supporting the less fortunate 4. Fasting-fast during the month of Ramadan. 5. Pilgrimage- perform hajj--pilgrimage to Mecca.
an Islamic house of wroship.
pilgrimage to Mecca
the holy book of Islam that contained the teaching of Muhammad. Written in Arabic.
Muhammad's example the is the best model for living.
body of law made up of the Qur'an and Sunna.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Allah is the same God worshipped by Christians and Jews. Muslims view Jesus as a prophet. All believe in heaven, hell, and judgment day. All trace ancestry to Abraham. All extend religious tolerance to one another.
"successor/deputy". Elected leader of Muslim community.
friend of Muhammad who was the 1st caliph. Invoked jihad (striving--inner struggle vs. evil) to encourage Islamic expansion.
"Right guided" caliphs
Umar, Abu-Bakr, Uthman, Ali
a family who came to power and moved the Muslim capital to Damascus (from Mecca). Most accepted their rule, however, many resisted it.
members called Shi'ites. Resisted Umayyad rule and believed the caliph need to be a descendant of Muhammad.
Muslims who did not outwardly resist the rule of the Umayyads.
rejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads.
most powerful rebel group who took control of the empire after the Umayyad's overthrow. Moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad. They helped order Muslim areas and increased Islamic power. Failed to keep political control and they were overthrown.
the extraordinary Muslim state formed by Berbers (Muslims in Spain).
a caliphate formed by Shi'a Muslims.
capital of Muslim areas created by Abbasids with a circular design, beautiful palaces, fortification, and great roads.
Muslim social classes
1. upper class (Muslims at birth) 2. converts to Islam 3. protected people--Christians, Jews, etc. 4. Slaves
Muslim women
inferior to men. Qur'ain says they are equal but also says men are managers of women. Women had some legal rights and more economic rights than at other times. Wealthy women supervised homes, poor women worked in fields. Both raised children.
House of Wisdom
a combination library, academy, and translation center.
Muslim literature
Qur'an is basis for all literature. Usually discussed nature, life, and love.
the art of beautiful handwriting that many artists turned to because only Allah could created images of life.
a high-ranking Byzantine nobleman who as emperor won nearly all of Italy and Spain. He ruled with absolute power over Church and state. He and a panel of legal experts created the Justinian Code and also rebuilt Constantinople. Greatest passion-church building. Created the Hagia Sophia.
Justinian Code
a single uniform code created by Justinian and a panel of legal experts. It had 4 works: 1. The Code-5,000 Roman laws 2. The Digest- opinions of legal thinkers on laws 3. The Institutes-textbook telling law students how to use laws. 4. The Novellae-new laws after 534.
Hagia Sophia
"Holy Wisdom." A church destroyed in Constantinople but rebuilt by Justinian---viewed as most splendid church of Christian world.
wife of Justinian who urged him to not flee during Nika Rebellion. She was Justinian's advisor and had immense power. Eventually restored the use of icons.
Fall of Byzantine Empire
1. plague killing much of population 2. attacks from foreign enemies
leading bishop of the East.
religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions. They were banned by Leo III and restored by Theodora.
outcasting from the Church.
Split of Christian Church
1. lack of contact between Eastern and Western Christianity 2. ban of Eastern icons 3. pope and patriarch excommunicated each other
Western Roman Catholic Church
in Latin, pope has control of Church and emperors, priests cannot marry, divorce is not allowed
Eastern Orthodox Church
in Greek or local languages, patriarch and other clergy had control, emperor rules of patriarch, priests can marry, divorces is allowed but not encouraged.
Similarities between East and West Church
1. based on Jesus and Bible 2. use sacraments 3. religious leaders are bishops and priests 4. seek to convert
Cyrillic alphabet
the alphabet invented by Cyril and Methodius to aid in conversion of Slavs. Many Slavis languages, inclduing Russian, use this alphabet.
Viking chief who was invited to become the Slavic king. He founded Novgorod--the 1st important city of Russia.
a city on the Dnieper River that began as a small state ruled by a prince. 1st Russian unified territory.
Kievan princess who publicly converted to Christianity in Constantinople.
Olga's grandson who converted to Byzantine Christianity. He also converted all the citizens of Kiev. He helped spread Christianity in Russia.
Yaroslav the Wise
Vladimir's son who led Kiev to a great glory. He married off his daughters to other countries form trading alliances. He also created a legal code and Christianity further prospered. Made a crucial error- split his empire between his sons.
a ferocious group of horseman-nomads from central Asia. Their savage killing and burning deemed them as a group of ruthless brutality. Attacked Kiev and demolished the city-"no eye remained to weep." Created their own empire called the Khanate of the Golden Horde. Allowed Russians to follow usual customs as long as they didn't rebel. They accepted all religions. Demanded two things from Russians: obedience and tributes
Genghis Khan
Mongol ruler who was one of the most feared warriors ever.
Ivan I
prince of Moscow how helped the Mongols crush a Russian revolt. He was sppointed tax collector and was deemed "Grand Prince." He became to most powerful Russian prince and was called "Ivan Moneybag." Convinced the patriarch to move to Moscow.
Ivan III
prince of Moscow who challenged Mongol rule. He took the name czar (Caesar) and wanted to make Russia the 3rd Rome. He refused to pay further tribute and his army met the Mongol army. Neither attacked and both marched home. Russians marked this their liberation.
Russian version of Caesar. 1st czar was Ivan III.
nomads living on Chinese borders. May have been Turks. They were horsemen.
most likely were Tu-Kiu. Abbasids bought Turkish children as slaves because of their skill and loyalty. Turkish military slaved then became a powerful force. They began converting to Islam.
Turkish groups who converted to Islam and began migrating to the Abbasid Empire. They captured Baghdad from the Persians. They occupied most of Anatolia. They eventually formed the Seljuk Dynasty. They adopted the Persian language and Persian culture.
Persian prime minister
Malik Shah
the most famous Seljuk sultans.
a Seljuk ruler
the grandson of Genghi's Khan who attacked the Seljuks and captured Baghdad, he also burned down the caliph's palace and killed many people.