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55 Cards in this Set

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nutrition
the science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions within the body (including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion); includes social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating
foods
products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues
diet
the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks
Influences of Food Choices
~Personal Preferences
~Habit
~Ethnic Heritage or Tradition
~Social Interactions
~Availability, Convenience, and Economy
~Positive and Negative Associations
~Emotional Comfort
~Values
~Body weight and Image
~Nutrition and Health Benefits
functional foods
foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions; sometimes called designer foods or nutraceuicals
phytochemicals
nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body
energy
the capacity to do work; body converts chemical energy to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy
nutrients
chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues; may also reduce rissks of some diseases
inorganic
not containing carbon or pertaining to living things
organic
in chemistry, a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds excluding coal, diamonds and carbon containing compounds with no hydrogen such as CO2, CaCO3, MgCO3, NaCN
essential nutrients
nutrients that a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs; aka indespensable nutrients; about 40 nutients are currently known
energy-yielding nutrients
nutrrients that break down to yield energy the body can use:
~carbohydrate
~fat
~protein
calories
units which energy is measured; food energy measured in kcal which is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 C
energy density
measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcal per gram)
vitamins
organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
minerals
inorganic elements, some are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
genome
full complement of genetic material (DNA) in the chromosomes of a cell; in human beings there are 46 chromosomes; study called genomics
nutritional genomics
science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes (nutrigenomics) and how genes affect the interaction between diet adn disease (nutrigenetics)
blind experiment
an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group
control group
a group of individuals similar in all possibile respects to the experimental group except for the treatment. Ideally, they receive a placebo while the experimental group receives a real treatment
correlation
simultaneous increase, decrease, or change in two variables. If A increase as B increase, or if A decreases as B decreases it is positive; If A increases as B decreases, or if A decreases as B increases it is negative; a third factor may account for both A and B
double-blind experiment
an experiment in which neither the subjects nor the researchers know which subjects are members of the experimental group and which are serving as control subjects, until the experiment is over
experimental group
a group of individuals similar in all possibile respects to control group except the treatment and receives the real treatment
hypothesis
an unproven statement the tentatively explains the relationships between two or more variables
peer review
a process in which a panel of scientists rigorously evaluates a research study to assure that the scientific method was followed
placebo
an inert, harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope; a sham treatment used in controlled research studies
placebo effect
a change that occurs in response to expectations in the effectiveness of a treatment that actually has no pharmaceutical effects
randomization
a process of choosing the members of the experimental and control groups without bias
replication
repeating an experiment and getting the same results. The skeptical scientist, on hearing of a new, exciting finding, will ask, "Has it been replicated yet?" If it hasn't withhold judgement regarding the finding's validity
subjects
the people or animals participating in a research project
theory
a tentative explanation that integrates many and diverse findings to further the understanding of s defined topic
validity
having the qualit of being founded on fact or evidence
variables
factors that change
Dietary Refernce Intakes (DRI)
a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada; these values are used for planning and assessing diets and include:
~EAR ~RDA
~AI ~UL
requirement
the lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological finction in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group
Recommnded Dietary Allowance (RDA)
the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals
deficient
the amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected, over time, to experience deficiency symptoms
Adequate Intake (AI)
the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears afe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
Estimated Energy requirement (EER)
the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases
malnutrition
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by and imbalance of nutrients
undernutrition
deficient energy or nutrients
overnutrition
excess energy or nutrients
nutriion assessment
a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories, antropometric measurements; physical examinations; and laboratory tests
anthropometric
relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight
overt
out in the open r easy to observe
primary deficiency
a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
secondary deficiency
a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient
subclinical deficiency
a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared
covert
hidden, as in under the covers
Healthy People
a national publc health initiative under the jurisdiction of the US Dept of Health and Human Services tha identifies the most significant preventable threats to health and focuses efforts toward eliminating them
chronic disease
diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration (ex heart disease, cancer, and diabetes)
risk factors
a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal; leading ones for chronic diseases include obesity, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains