Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Task Analysis
Views problems as tasks and breaks down the task into components, which are then broken down into smaller components

-must be concrete
Be concrete
-always pinpoint specific behaviors
-when you deal with a behavioral problem, specify exactly what behavior you want to change
Tell them what they have done right and what they have done wrong
-Any stimulus, event, or condition
-Whose presentation immediately follows a response
-And increases the frequency of that response
3 things
How immediate is immediate?
0 second rule

-the direct effect of reinforcers drops off quickly as you increase the delay, up to 60 seconds
Assumed Reinforcers
Just because you call something a reinforcer, doesn't make it one
-anything a dead man can't do
-behavior is anything an animal does
-a muscle, glandular, or electrical activity
-behavior = response
Behavior analysis
the study of the behavior of human beings and other animals

-"the study of the operation of the principles of behavior with both human beings and other animals"
Behavior analyst
a person who studies the operation of the principles of behavior

-do not have to be psychologists
-often work as performance managers
Performance managers
people trained in the principles of behavior

e.g. coaches, clinicians, animal trainers, social workers, etc
"your bag of tricks"

-a set of skills
-what a person or animal can do
Behavioral intervention
the use of a behavioral procedure
Reinforcement principle
a response will occur more frequently if a reinforcer or an increase in a reinforcer has immediately followed it in the past
Reinforcement Contingency
-the immediate
-response contingent
-presentation of
-a reinforcer
-resulting in an increased frequency of that response
5 things
What does "response-contingent" mean?
it means "caused by the response/behavior" or "produced by the response/behavior"
Outcome Gradient
-the effect of reinforcement and punishment procedures decrease
-as the delay between the response and the outcome increases.
-Reinforcers and aversive conditions delayed more than 60 seconds
-have little or no reinforcing or punishing effect
Generic reinforcement contingency
Before condition = no reinforcer
Behavior = response
After condition = reinforcer
To be dependent on or to be caused by:

-the occasion for a response,
-the response
-or the outcome of the response
a stimulus, event, or condition in the presence of which a particular response (behavior) will produce a particular outcome

-not the same as "before"
Noncontingent Event
an event that is not dependent on anything
Environmental-quality general rule
you can increase the frequency of ENTERING A SETTING by putting more reinforcers in that setting, but you will have to make some reinforcers contingent on productive behavior if you want to increase productivity in that setting
Can a reinforcer precede a behavior?
No. A reinforcer must follow a behavior.
Involves the use of reinforcers for immoral or illegal deeds
The They "Should Ought" to Want to Do It
People don't want to reward other people for doing what they think they should do anyways, but that is a false morality

-it doesn't hurt to reinforce good behavior, it only helps
Skinner Box
A test chamber with a response device and a source of reinforcers

e.g. rat in hot box deprived of water; level in box provides a drop of water
Circular reasoning
the only proof you have is the existence of the thing you're trying to prove
The error of Reification
to call a process or activity a thing
-The observation,
-or criteria for measurement
-are NOT assessable to more than one person

Independent observers cannot reliably agree on the measurement
-The observation,
-or critera for measurement
-are accessible to any competent observer
4 things
Interobserver Reliability
the reliable agreement between independent observers based on objective measures and observations
Medical Model Myth
-An erroneous view of human behavior --
-That behavior is always a mere symptom of
-an underlying psychological condition
Don't Say Rule
With any organisms, don't say "wants"

With nonverbal organisms, don't say:
expects, knows, thinks, figureous, in order to, trying to, makes the connection, associates, learns that, imagines, understands
What should you reinforce?
Behavior, not people.
What is the difference between "reinforcer" and "reinforcement"?
A reinforcer is a stimulus or event (or thing) that will increase the likelihood of responses it immediately follows; one component of the process.

Reinforcement describes the whole scene; the process or procedure of reinforcing a response
-The phase of an experiment or intervention
-where the behavior is measured
-in the absence of an intervention