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20 Cards in this Set

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child / adult is more tolerant to fluid-lyte-pH changes?
adult more tolerant
maintenance fluids calculation
100 = 1st 10 lbs
50 = 2nd 10 lbs
25 = each additional lb.
polyuria + dehydration

ddx?
1.DM
2.diabetes insipidus
3.renal tubular acidosis
most common type of dehydration
isotonic
hypotonic dehydration: [Na+] < x
130
hypertonic dehydration: [Na+] > x
150
who looks more dehydrated:

hyponatremic / hypernatremic?
hyponatremic
BUN:Cr > 20 = ?
prerenal failure
ORT: how do you give?
over 24 hrs.
50% in first 8 hrs
50% in 16 hrs

exception: hypernatremic pt -> 48-72 hrs
T/F: replacement & maintenance fluid should be K+ free until pt urinates
true
severity of hyponatremia: depends on...
1.sodium level
2.rate of change
correction of Na+ in setting of hyperglycemia
+ 1.6 [Na+] for every 100 mg/dl glucose above nl
hyponatremia: causes
1.dehydration
2.SIADH
3.water intoxication
4.renal failure
5.CHF
6.adrenal insufficiency
hyperkalemia = [K+] > x
5.8 mEq/L
most common cause of hyperkalemia
hemolysis of RBCs
hyperkalemia: ECG change progression
1.peaked t-waves
2.long PR
3.wide QRS
4.absent p wave (sinusoidal wave)
[K+] > 9: leads to..
1.v-fib
2.cardiac arrest
hyperkalemia: 1st tx
calcium gluconate (stabilize heart)
hypokalemia: causes
1.vomiting
2.loop diuretics (furosemide)
3.dka
metabolic acidosis: most consistent clinical finding
hyperpnea