Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
88 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
CAT (scan) stands for...?

Computer Aided Tomography


CADAM stands for...?

Computer Aided Design System and Manufacturing System


CADAM was created by...?

Lockheed, with IBM


First interactive CG system developed by Ivan Sutherland @ Massachusetts Instiute of Technology in early 1960s; allowed user to interact w/ 3d wireframe displays by means of a lightpen

Sketchpad


Allowed US Air Force to use command and control point and click CRT displays to detect and track aircraft

SAGE Air Defense System


First personal microcomputers

Apple II, Timex Sinclair, IBMPC


Lead 3D CG research and development @ University of Utah

David Evans


Mass Market Personal Computers

Intel microprocessors, Apple Macintosh, IBM personal computers


Microsoft's standardized disk operating systems for mass market personal computers

DOS Operating System


Commercial CG Application Software

Autodesk, Adobe, Alias, Wavefront


PC Hardware Benchmarks in 1980s

50 Mhz clockspeed, 832 Mb RAM


Algorithms developed in 50s and 60s

early 3d  hidden surface removal, color, shading


Algorithms developed in 70s

Gouraud shading, Phong shading, texture mapping, bump mapping


Algorithms developed in 80s

Ray tracing


PC Hardware Benchmarks in 1990s

400500 Mhz clockspeed, 64256 Mb RAM


PC Hardware Benchmarks in Early 2000s

1000 Mhz clockspeed, 512 Mb  1 Gb RAM


PC Hardware Benchmarks in Mid 2000s

1000+ Mhz Clockspeed, 2+ Gb RAM


The visible spectrum of light ranging from red to violet (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) defines the range of the normal human visual system to perceive color.

Color as a Function of Light


This is the apparent color, irrespective of brightness or saturation. Ex: Red, green, blue, and yellow

Hue


This is the level of purity in a single color's hue. AKA Chroma in video graphics

Saturation


This is the relative lightness or darkness of a color. A high ___ range in an image is said to have high contrast and generally gives a richer and more detailed look than one with a low ___ range.

Value AKA Brightness


The number of indivisual colors a file format can display for each pixel.

Color Depth


8bit color has this many varieties

256


16bit color has this many varieties

65,536


24color has this many varieties

16,777,216


Number of varieties in grayscale

256


RGB color model is a _____ color model; produces white

Additive (color model)


CRT (displays) stands for...?

Cathode Ray Tube


This is a color range  the total number of colors that can be faithfully reproduced in a given format such as websafe colors, CYMK printable colors, NTSC, or film. (Warning icons in photoshop = triangle for print and cube for web)

Gamut


____ Color Model; CYM (cyan, yellow, and magenta) mixture created from RGB primaries; commonly used for generating color output for print and hard copy media

Subtractive (color model)


Blue + Green levels =

Cyan


Red + Blue levels =

Magenta


Red + Green levels =

Yellow


Term used to describe the appearance of a light source, measured in degrees Kelvin.

Color temperature


Color temperature around 8,000 K

Cool/Blue


Color temperature around 1,5002,000 K.

Red/Warm


Simplest form of computergenerated object, consisting of a line formed by two points. Three points connected by lines form a polygon. Are generated from underlying math formulas for lines and other geometric entities. AKA Objectbased graphics

Vector Graphics


Graphic images made up of rows of dots or pixels as opposed to vector line representation. AKA image or bitmapped graphics

Rastor Graphics


2D array of pixels used to store an image. Also referred to a rastor graphics as opposed to vector graphics. Stricly speaking, this has only one single bit of color info per pixel, therefore it is either black or white

Bitmap


A raster image file with more than 8 bytes per pixel. Usually referred to when more than 1 bit is used per pixel.

Pixmap


An attempt to approximate a higher number of colors in a lower bitdepth color system or a lower resolution image. Done by assigning two similar colors that are able to be reproduced to adjacent pixels. The results produce the illusion of smoother edges and color transitions in an image.

Dither


The horizontal rows of pixels that make up a raster image.

Scan lines


NTSC (National Television Standards Committee, 1953) broadcast signals provided _____ viewable scanlines.

480


Digitally created imagery with enough resolution for mtion pictures requires about _____ scanlines.

2000


An objectbased curve (vector graphic) defined by a math function. Ex: Bezier Curve, NURBS

Spline


Another name for a line segment. This should not be confused with a vector or a 3D geometric primitive.

Vector Primitive


In software programs, the _____ is the rectangular area formed by the crawling dotted line denoting the selected part of an image.

Marquee


Endtoend vector primitives connected at their endpoints make a _____.

Polyline


The "world space" or fixed Cartesian coordinate system which defines the entire 2D or 3D coordinate space.

World/Global Coordinates


The individual coordinate system for each point, line, curve, object, group, or other subset of objects that exist within world/global coordinate system. Making changes to _____ coordinate systems affect only the objects associated with that coordinate system.

Local/Relative Coordinates


A singular but continuous set of connected vector primitive line segments (or curves) connected by their endpoints (vertices). To make them more useful in applied graphics, the individual segments and vertices can be moved or have their curvature edited.

Polyline


A _____ is a closedloop polyline composed of at least 3 vertices and 3 edges. The basic elements for defining surfaces in a _____ mesh.

Polygon


A 4point polygon is called a...?

Quad


Type of cubic polynomial curve first described by Pierre Bezier in 1970. It is defined by two end points and a scaleable tangent vector which can be used to control the shape of the curve. A common and dominant method for creating and editing vector graphics in applied CG.

Bezier curve


Basic geometric modeling forms are building into all standard 3D software packages. Typical 3D ______ include cubes, cylinders, spheres, and cones.

Geometric primitive


3D models and diplays contain only point and edge information about the polygons which make up the model. Surface data is either not present in the display or does not exist for the model. Are fast and easy to display and are useful for viewing and editing models in a 3D virtual environment.

Wireframe


Composed of polygonal surfaces and enclosing spline curves or polyline cross sections/profiles or they may be NURBS based. Are designed to contain and display only visual information about the surface properties and characteristic shape of a 3D object. Do not contain solid properties such as mass or center of gravity and other properties associated with solid objects.

Surface modeling


Common method of modeling used in computer aided design. Used to generate whole objects with solid mass properties, not just surfaces, by means of solid primitives, extruded shapes, revolved shapes, Boolean operations, and other sweeping operations.

Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)


NURBS stands for...?

NonUniform Rational BSpline


An advanced class of spline based modeling which allows end users an almost unlimited control of the shape of both curves and surface contours through weighted control vertices.

NURBS


Basic geometric modeling forms are built into all standard 3D software packages. Typical _____ include cubes, cylinders, spheres, and cones.

3D Geometric Primitives


A surface described by numerous connecting polygons.

Polygon mesh


The point at which an object may be rotated about in 3D space.

Pivot Point


Individual points which defined on a 2D curve or 3D surface which can be used to modify (transform) the shape of the curve or surface.

Control vertices


When both sides of a surface are made renderable and can be viewed regardless of their orientation to the camera.

Double Sided


To make a surface or 3D model by creating a cross section and extending or "sweeping" it along an axis which is typically perpendicular to the face of the cross section.

Extrude


A 3D model which is created by revolving or "sweeping" a crowss section or profile around an axis.

Surface of Revolution


The nested grouping of objects in a scene that defines dependencies of translation, rotation, and scale.

Heirarchy


An object node above another

Parent


An object node below another

Child


Useful method of modeling that combines 2D and 3D models based on the math logic of Union, Difference, and Intersection.

Booleans


Adding aka...?

Union


Subtracting aka...?

Difference


Common volume aka...?

Intersection


Process of subdividing and refining a polygon mesh into a series of smaller polygonal faces while maintaining the general shape of the original object. AKA splitting, dicing, or adaptive subdivision.

Tessellation


The creation of a 3D surface by interpolating contour between two or more splines.

Skinning


AKA "Blob" modeling; Refers to the implicit surface modeling technique developed and advanced by the Japanese company Links, Osaka University, and the artist Yoichiro

Metaballs


Making a virtual copy of an object; The new virtual model is a ghost of the original object that can be modified indirectly by editing the original object

Instance


An operation which alters the position, orientation, or proportional size of a 3D object in its coordinate space.

Geometric Transformation


The 3 principle geometric transformations in CG

Translation, Rotation, Scaling


The surface normal that faces away from the camera and is completely occluded by other polygons.

BackFace


Process that removes a polygon's backface from a scene to speed up rendering calculation.

Backface Culling


Computer graphic icon designed by Martin Newall @ the University of Utah in 1976; Now located in the Computer Museum in Boston, MA.

Utah Teapot


Slang term for a freeform deformation matrix tool.

Bendy Box


A modeling technique which allows the user to create a more complex model by selectively deforming simpler primitive objects. This technique typically uses an attached control lattice to manipulate an underlying polygon mesh or NURBS model

Freeform Deformation


To change the shape of a 3D model's geometry through means OTHER than the basic modeling methods of primitive creation, extrusion, revolution, lofting, or skinning.

Deformation


Modeling technique used to actually distort the surface geometry during rendering by using 8bit grayscale raster image map values; Developed by R. Cook in 1984.

Displacement mapping


A generic geometric modifier that transforms the positions of an object's vertices along any combination of 3 axis; Thi important modeling & animation tool simulates random variations in an object's shape.

Noise
