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75 Cards in this Set

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baby boomers
people born between 1946 and 1964

during this time in US history, birth rates rose sharply because of economic prosperity following WWII
average life expectancy
68-80
white females: 80
black females: 74.8

white males: 74.9
black males: 68.2
gerontologists
scientists who study aging
lifespan perspective
from cradle to grave, human beings are in a constant, continuous state of growth-motion
nature-nurture debate
are the influences of aging determined by nature (hereditary characteristics) or by nurture (environmental, experiential)
4 interactive forces of development
1. biological forces
2. psychological forces
3. sociocultural forces
4. lifecycle forces
biological forces
refer to genetic and health related factors, race and ethnic differences
psychological forces
refer to all cognitive, emotional and perceptual factors
sociocultural forces
cultural, ethnic, societal, relational, and interpersonal factors

employment, living arrangements, marital status, parenting and grandparenting
lifecycle forces
all of these forces interact and combine to create a person's unique, individual developmental experiences
normative age-graded influences
develpmental changes that are caused by biological, psychological and sociocultural forces

typically high correlated to a person's chronological age
social clock
when culture establishes norms associated with the timing of events

(rites of passage, graduating from high school, or college, getting married, retiring)
normative history-graded influences
events or conditions that people in a given culture or society experience simultaneously
non normative influences
things that most people do not experience--uncommon, rare, or unanticipated events
primary aging
refers to the basic biological processes that are genetically programmed and that take place with the passage of time

include:
-age related anatomical and functional changes
-changes that are progressive
-changes that are inevitable
-changes that are universally experienced
-changes that are irreversible
-changes that eventually lead to death
age related anatomical and functional changes
changes in immune system and ability to fight infection or disease, changes in vision or hearing, function of joints
changes that are progressive
at 30. we lose brain neurons. at 50, brain size reduced to 97%, by 70, brain size reduced 92%
changes that are inevitable
declines in sensory functions. hearing, vision, taste, balance become less acute. reaction times become slower
changes that are universally experienced regardless of any society or culture
changes in brain weight and the inevitable
Hayflick limit
what accounts for the aging process and life expectancy

proposed that there are 3 cellular factors that cause aging:
1. the diminished capacity to adapt to stressors
2. reduction in the speed of performance
3. increased susceptibility to disease
secondary aging
physiological declines that are the result of environmental and behavioral influences that significantly impact how we age

influenced by lifestyle choices such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of exercise
ageism
refers to the stereotypical attitudes people hold about the aging and the elderly
ageist
people who have a fixed and negative mind-set about older people
marital satisfaction
characteristics of relational quality in older couples
--fewer sources of conflict
--greater potential for pleasure
--tend to be more affectionate
--sources of conflict change
sexuality
half of all americans over 60 report they are sexually active

those over 60 are more sexually active than those in their 70s

the gap between 60s and 70s may be due to women living longer than their partners
divorce in elderly population
relatively infrequent but it does happen

-more traumatic
-financial burdens are greater
-significantly impacts parent-child relationship
remarriage in elderly populations
rare, but also happens
intergenerational ties
refer to the relationships between family members across multiple generations, and these relationships are indeed important to the aging population

include relationship among parents and children, daughters in law, sons in law, nieces, aunts, stepchildren, grandparents
fictive kin
people who are not biologically related to someone, but who fulfill a family roll
empty nest
the home with no children

issues
-changes in or loss of roles
-marital issues
-career changes
-caregiving shifts
-relationships with children changes
parent adult child relationship
4 factors
1. gender
2. geographic distance
3. parent's marital status
4. familial culture
styles of grandparenting
-formal
-fun seeker
-distant
-surrogate
-dispenser of wisdom
formal grandparenting
traditional, baby sit occasionally, "hands off" with childrearing and discipline
fun seeker grandparenting
have relationship w/ grandchildren that is characterized by informal playfulness
companionate relationship
warm, loving, nurturing
distant grandparenting
little or no contact w/ grandchildren

remote relationship
surrogate grandparenting
assume role of parent

described involved relationship
dispenser of wisdom grandparenting
authoritarian figure offers information and advice
retirement is a developmental process--6 stages
1. pre-retirement
2. retirement
3. disenchantment
4. reorientation
5. retirement routine
6. termination of retirement
phase 1:pre-retirement
people begin to consider retirement, begin to disengage from workplace
phase 2: retirement
retire from paid workforce, usually has 3 routes to take:

honeymoon-taking it easy, vacation, leisure activity

immediate retirement routine- ability to establish a comfortable schedule

rest and relaxation: low activity initially but activity levels increase after a few years
phase 3: disenchantment
experience a period of disappointment and uncertainty

miss feeling productive, useful, and needed
phase 4: reorientation
retirees start making adjustments that will improve their lives

take up new hobbies, volunteer, relocate
phase 5: retirement routine
ability to master a comfortable, rewarding and satisfying retirement routine
phase 6: termination of retirement
decline physically, becoming dependent on partner or spouse, elder care
life orientation
refers to emphasis pre-retirees or retirees place on various aspects of life, such as family life and economic security
marital intimacy: 3 types
1. reciprocity-both spouses confide in one another and self-disclose

2. nonreciprocity-one spouse confides, the other doesn't

3. segregative-neither spouse shares with the other
caregiving career
makes up those years caregivers tend to dependent children, aging parents, and eventually, dependent husbands or wives
characteristics of caregivers
-dominated by women, making daughters and daughters in law the most common caregiver

--73% of all caregivers are women, with an average age of 46

--women are more likely than men to miss work or reduce workload in order to care for a family member or an ailing spouse

--90% of caregivers for people w/ alzheimer's are women
why are caregivers mostly women?
-women experience greater emotional closeness to their parents, feel greater need to care for them as they age
multiple tasks for caring for aging parents or spouse
-emotional support
-personal care
-instrumental help
-financial management or assistance
-making decisions about care and arranging any required care by physicians, nursing, social services, etc
caregiver burden
when caregiving responsibilities exert physical and emotional wear and tear on caregivers
stressors associated w/ caregiving
-receiving complaints and criticisms from parents
-uncooperative or demanding parents
-agitate parents
-forgetful or unresponsive parents
-helping w/ personal care needs
-managing a parent's financial or legal affairs
-receiving little help from family or friends
stressful aspects of caregiving
-transformation of a cherished relationship

-problematic physical behaviors

-cognitive impairments
rewards of caregiving
-knowing the parent is well cared for
-spending quality time w/ parent
-enjoying parent's affection and appreciation
-seeing a parent derive pleasure from small things
-seeing a parent calm and content
-experiencing a closer relationship w/ a parent
sandwich generation
being in the middle of two generations--parenting adolescent or younger children while at the same time caring for aging parents
parents' losses
-lose financial stability
-social network
-aging friends begin to die, social identity is eroded
adult children's losses (caregiver)
-less time to spend w/ own spouses and children, or furthering careers
parents' needs
-physical and financial needs
-emotional needs
-business needs
-spiritual needs and concerns
adult children's needs
-nurture marital or other intimate relationships by making time to spend w/ one another
-guard own mental, emotional, and physical health
-parent out of love, not guilt
-be realistic
death anxiety
fear of death--whether our own death or the death of a loved one

refers to the tension, feelings of distress, and apprehension with discussions and thoughts of death
lingering trajectory of death
one in which the transition from life to death takes an extended period of time, such as w/ some types of cancer, diabetes, or other progressive illnesses

--advantageous in that it allows both dying person and family time to get used to the idea of dying, work out any unresolved conflicts, and engage in meaningful life review
expected quick trajectory
typically associated w/ an acute crisis or illness, such as a heart attack or vehicle accident

--time is a critical factor

several types of expected quick trajectories:
--pointed, danger period, crisis, will probably die
pointed trajectory
ill person may or may not be saved, and thus is exposed to any number of very high-risk procedures in an attempt to save the life
danger period
ill person may or may not be conscious. family waits as family member lingers between life and death, waiting for the danger to subside
crisis
ill person is not in immediate danger of dying, but still runs the risk of dying suddenly, such as w/ an acute case of pneumonia
will probably die
nothing can be done to preserve the life of the ill person. medical staff keep the person as comfortable as possible as family member wait for death to occur
unexpected quick trajectory
has elements of time pressure and surprise

typically not enough time to save the life of the injured or ill person

no time allowed for friends and family to plan or to prepare themselves emotionally
mourning
refers to the culturally prescribed expressions of the thoughts and feelings of a bereaved person

--how people display their grief
bereaved person
someone who suffers the loss of a loved one
bereavement
refers to a person's specific, unique reactions following the news that a loved one has died

--experienced only by people who lose someone to death
grief
response to painful, forcible separation that takes place when we are faced w/ death

characterized by 3 emotional and cognitive stages: initial phase, intermediate phase, final phase
initial phase of grief
shock, numbness, disbelief, followed by overwhelming sorrow
intermediate phase of grief
some tend to get angry at deceased or displace anger onto other family members or healthcare providers

experience anguish, disorganization, despair, and may feel they have lost hte motivation to carry on
final phase of grief
recovery and reorganization occur but may take several years.