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83 Cards in this Set

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zero coupon bond
A bond that makes no coupon payments-- thus initially priced at a deep discount.
yield to maturity (YTM)
The rate required in the market on a bond.
Treasury yield curve
A plot of the yields on Treasury notes and bonds relative to maturity.
term structure of interest rates
The relationship between nominal interest rates on default-free-- pure discount securities and time to maturity; that is-- the pure time value of money.
taxability premium
The portion of a nominal interest rate or bond yield that represents compensation for unfavorable tax status.
SuperDOT system
An electronic NYSE system allowing orders to be transmitted directly to the specialist.
sunk cost
A cost that has already been incurred and cannot be removed and therefore should not be considered in an investment decision.
straight voting
A procedure in which a shareholder may cast all votes for each member of the board of directors.
stated interest rate
The interest rate expressed in terms of the interest payment made each period. Also-- quoted interest rate.
stand-alone principle
The assumption that evaluation of a project may be based on the project's incremental cash flows.
specialist's post
A fixed place on the exchange floor where the specialist operates.
specialist
A NYSE member acting as a dealer in a small number of securities on the exchange floor; often called a market maker.
sinking fund
An account managed by the bond trustee for early bond redemption.
secondary market
The market in which previously issued securities are traded among investors.
registered form
The form of bond issue in which the registrar of the company records ownership of each bond; payment is made directly to the owner of record.
real rates
Interest rates or rates of return that have been adjusted for inflation.
proxy
A grant of authority by a shareholder allowing another individual to vote his/her shares.
protective covenant
A part of the indenture limiting certain actions that might be taken during the term of the loan-- usually to protect the lender's interest.
profitability index (PI)
The present value of an investment's future cash flows divided by its initial cost. Also-- benefit-cost ratio
pro forma financial statements
Financial statements projecting future years' operations.
primary market
The market in which new securities are originally sold to investors.
preferred stock
Stock with dividend priority over common stock-- normally with a fixed dividend rate-- sometimes without voting rights.
perpetuity
An annuity in which the cash flows continue forever.
payback period
The amount of time required for an investment to generate cash flows sufficient to recover its initial cost.
over-the-counter (OTC) market
Securities market in which trading is almost exclusively done through dealers who buy and sell for their own inventories.
order flow
The flow of customer orders to buy and sell securities.
opportunity cost
The most valuable alternative that is given up if a particular investment is undertaken.
note
An unsecured debt-- usually with a maturity under 10 years.
nominal rates
Interest rates or rates of return that have not been adjusted for inflation.
net present value profile
A graphical representation of the relationship between an investment's NPVs and various discount rates.
net present value (NPV)
The difference between an investment's market value and its cost.
mutually exclusive investment decisions
A situation in which taking one investment prevents the taking of another.
multiple rates of return
The possibility that more than one discount rate will make the NPV of an investment zero.
member
The owner of a seat on the NYSE.
maturity
Specified date on which the principal amount of a bond is paid.
liquidity premium
The portion of a nominal interest rate or bond yield that represents compensation for lack of liquidity.
internal rate of return (IRR)
The discount rate that makes the NPV of an investment zero.
interest rate risk premium
The compensation investors demand for bearing interest rate risk.
inside quotes
Highest bid quotes and lowest ask quotes offered by dealers for a security.
inflation premium
The portion of a nominal interest rate that represents compensation for expected future inflation.
indenture
The written agreement between the corporation and the lender detailing the terms of the debt issue.
incremental cash flows
The difference between a firm's future cash flows with a project and those without the project.
floor traders
NYSE members who trade for their own accounts-- trying to anticipate temporary price fluctuations.
floor brokers
NYSE members who execute orders for commission brokers on a fee basis; sometimes called $2 brokers.
Fisher effect
The relationship between nominal returns-- real returns-- and inflation.
face value
The principal amount of a bond that is repaid at the end of the term. Also-- par value.
erosion
The cash flows of a new project that come at the expense of a firm's existing projects.
equivalent annual cost (EAC)
The present value of a project's costs calculated on an annual basis.
electronic communications network (ECN)
A Web site that allows investors to trade directly with each other.
effective annual rate (EAR)
The interest rate expressed as if it were compounded once per year.
dividends
Payments by a corporation to shareholders-- made in either cash or stock.
dividend yield
A stock's expected cash dividend divided by its current price.
dividend growth model
A model that determines the current price of a stock as its dividend next period divided by the discount rate less the dividend growth rate.
discounted payback period
The length of time required for an investment's discounted cash flows to equal its initial cost.
discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation
The process of valuing an investment by discounting its future cash flows.
dirty price
The price of a bond including accrued interest-- also known as the full or invoice price. This is the price the buyer actually pays.
depreciation tax shield
The tax saving that results from the depreciation deduction-- calculated as depreciation multiplied by the corporate tax rate.
deferred call provision
A call provision prohibiting the company from redeeming the bond prior to a certain date.
default risk premium
The portion of a nominal interest rate or bond yield that represents compensation for the possibility of default.
debenture
An unsecured debt-- usually with a maturity of 10 years or more.
dealer
An agent who buys and sells securities from inventory.
current yield
A bond's annual coupon divided by its price.
cumulative voting
A procedure in which a shareholder may cast all votes for one member of the board of directors.
coupon
The stated interest payment made on a bond.
coupon rate
The annual coupon divided by the face value of a bond.
consol
A type of perpetuity.
common stock
Equity without priority for dividends or in bankruptcy.
commission brokers
NYSE members who execute customer orders to buy and sell stock transmitted to the exchange floor.
clean price
The price of a bond net of accrued interest; this is the price that is typically quoted.
capital gains yield
The dividend growth rate-- or the rate at which the value of an investment grows.
call provision
An agreement giving the corporation the option to repurchase the bond at a specified price prior to maturity.
call protected bond
A bond that-- during a certain period-- cannot be redeemed by the issuer.
call premium
The amount by which the call price exceeds the par value of the bond.
broker
An agent who arranges security transactions among investors.
bid-ask spread
The difference between the bid price and the asked price.
bid price
The price a dealer is willing to pay for a security.
bearer form
The form of bond issue in which the bond is issued without record of the owner's name; payment is made to whoever holds the bond.
average accounting return (AAR)
An investment's average net income divided by its average book value.
asked price
The price a dealer is willing to take for a security.
annuity
A level stream of cash flows for a fixed period of time.
annuity due
An annuity for which the cash flows occur at the beginning of the period.
annual percentage rate (APR)
The interest rate charged per period multiplied by the number of periods per year.
accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)
A depreciation method under U.S. tax law allowing for the accelerated write-off of property under various classifications.