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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vertebral Column
>commonly called spine or spinal column

>supporting column for trunk and head also transmits weight of the trunk & upper body to the lower limbs

>located in the midsagittal plane, forming the posterior or dorsal aspect of the bony trunk of the body

>Divided to 5 section
Cervical Spine 7
Thoracic Spine 12
Lumbar Spine 5
Sacrum 5 1
Coccyx 4 1
Total child 33 adult 26
Spinal Canal
>begins at the base of the skull & extends distally into the sacrum

>canal contains th espinal cord & is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Spinal Cord
>w/c is enclosed and proted by the spinal canal begins w/medulla oblongata of the brain

>passess through the foramen magnum of the skull & continues through the first cervical vertebra off the way down to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra where it tapers of fto a poing called conus medullaris.
Intervertebral disks
>Tough fibrocartilaginous disks separate typical adult vertebra

>Cushion-like disks are tightly bound to the vertebrae for spinal stability allow for flexibility and movement of the vertebral column
C-Spine (Vertebrae)
>1st 7 vertebrae
Thoracic spine (Vertebrae)
>next 12 vertebrae each connects to a pair of ribs
Lumbar Spine (Vertebrae)
>largest individual vertebrae are the 5 lumbar spine
>strongest vertebral column w/c carry the weight of the body as increases toward the inferior end of the column
>for this reason the cartilaginous disks between the inferior lumbar vertebrae are common sites for injury & pathology
Sacrum & Coccyx
>the sacrum & coccyx (tailbone) develop as multiple separate bones & then fuse into tow distinct bones.
>Newborn - 5 sacral & 4 coccyx adult hood will fuse into 1 sacral & and 4 coccyx

>rounded inward or depressed surface like a "cave"

>rounded outward or elevated surface
First Compensatory Curve
>Cervical curvature-concave, lordotic

>Children begin to raise their head & sit up
Second Compensatory Curve
>Lumbar curvature-concave, lordotic

>Children learn to walk
First Primary Curve
Thoracic curvature-convex
First Secondary Curve
Sacral curvature - convex
>means bent backward
>exaggerated lumbar curvature "swayback" increased concavity
>meaning hump
>abnormal or exaggerated thoracic "humpback" curvature with increased convexity
>abnormal exaggeratedlateral curvature

>S-shaped lateral curvature exist
A typical vertebra consists of two main parts:
1) Body
>is thick, weight-bearing anterior part of the vertebra.
>superior/anterior surfaces are flat & rough for attachment of the intervertebral disks.

2)Vertebral Arch
>ring or arch of bone extending posteriorly from the vertebral body
>the posterior surface of the body & the arch from a circular opening, the vertebral foramen w/c contains the spinal cord.
>vertebral (spinal) canal enclosed & protects spinal cord.
(Superior perspective)
>extend posteriorly form either side of the vertebral body

>form most of the sides of the vertebral arch
(Superior perspective)
>posterior part of the vertebral arch formed by 2 some what flat layers of bone

>each lamina extendsposteriorly from each pedicle to unite in the midline
Transverse process
(Superior perspective)
>extending laterally form approximately the junction of each pedicle and lamina is a projection
Spinous process
(Superior perspective)
>extends posteriorly at the midline junction of the two laminae

>can be palpated along the posterior surface of the neck and back
Vertebral Arch
>has 2 pedicles & 2 laminae
4 Articular Processes
2 superior(Superior articular processess right & left)

2 inferior(inferior articular processes right & left)
Intervertebral Joints
>are slightly movable joints between the vertebral bodyes

>the intervertebral disks located in these joints are tightly bound to the adjacent vertebral bodies for spinal stability but also allow for flexibiltiy and move of the vertebral column
Zygapophyseal Joints
facets - 4 articular process
Costal Joints
articulations of the ribs to the thoracic vertebra
Intervertebral Foramen
>when vertebrae are stacked the superior and inferior vertebral notches line up. These 2 half-moon-shaped areas form a single opening
>therefore between every two vertebrae are two intevertebral foramina one on each side, through w/c important spinal nerves nd blood vessels pass.
Annulus Fibrosus
each disk consists of an outer fibrous portion
Nucleus Pulposus
a soft semigelatinous inner part
Herniated Nucleus Pulposus(HNP)
>soft inner part protrudes throught the outer fibrous layer, it presses on the spinl cord & causes severe pain & numbness that radites into the lower limbs aka "slipped disk"