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112 Cards in this Set

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sotto voce
in an undertone, subdued
adagio
slow
allegro
fast (also means cheerful, happy)
allegretto
somewhat fast (slower than allegro)
andante
walking tempo (flowing)
andantino
slightly faster than andante
animato
animated, with spirit
con moto
with motion
largo
stately, broad, a very slow tempo
largo
slow
moderato
moderately
presto
very fast
vivace
lively, quick
vivo
lively
accelerando
gradually faster
a tempo
return to the original tempo
allargando
broadening, gradually slower
meno mosso
less motion, slower
piu mosso
more motion, faster
rallentando
gradually slower
ritardando
gradually slower
ritenuto
held back, suddenly slower
rubato
freely, flexible; slight accelerandos and ritardandos used for musical expression
cantabile
in a singing manner
con brio
with spirit
con fuoco
with fire
dolce
gently, sweetly
doloroso
sadly, sorrowfully
espressivo
expressively
--etto
little
sotto voce
in an undertone, subdued
adagio
slow
allegro
fast (also means cheerful, happy)
allegretto
somewhat fast (slower than allegro)
andante
walking tempo (flowing)
andantino
slightly faster than andante
animato
animated, with spirit
con moto
with motion
largo
stately, broad, a very slow tempo
largo
slow
moderato
moderately
presto
very fast
vivace
lively, quick
vivo
lively
accelerando
gradually faster
allargando
broadening, gradually slower
meno mosso
less motion, slower
piu mosso
more motion, faster
rallentando
gradually slower
ritenuto
held back, suddenly slower
rubato
freely, flexible; slight accelerandos and ritardandos used for musical expression
cantabile
in a singing manner
con brio
with spirit
con fuoco
with fire
dolce
gently, sweetly
doloroso
sadly, sorrowfully
espressivo
expressively
--etto
little
giocoso
humorous
grazioso
gracefully
--ino
little
leggiero
lightly
meno
less
molto
much, very
pesante
heavily, ponderously
piu
more
poco
little
robusto
boldly, robustly
scherzando
playful
sempre
always
senza
without
simile
in a similar manner, same
smorzando
fading away
spiritoso
spirited
subito
suddenly
tranquillo
peacefully, tranquil, calm
accent
strong emphasis
legato
smooth, connected
sforzando
sudden strong accent
sostenuto
sustained, legato
staccato
short, detached
tenuto
hold full value; slight emphasis
Alberti bass
An accompaniment pattern using a three note chord. The notes of the chord are played bottom - top - middle -top.
arpeggio
The notes of a chord played one after another instead of together. The notes of an arpeggio may be written out, or indicated by a wavy line to the left of the chord.
chromatic half step
A half step with two notes of the same letter name.
diatonic half step
A half step with two notes of different leter names.
D. C. al Fine
Play from the beginning to the fine (end).
Fermata
Hold a note longer than its time value.
m. d.
right hand
m.s.
left hand.
opus
Work. The term is usually used with a number to indicate the chronological order of music written by a composer.
pedal point
A consistent note that is held, repeated, or returned to regularly as harmonies change.
tre corde
Release the soft (left) pedal.
une corda
Depress the soft (left) pedal.
augmentation
The presentation of a melody or motive with the note values doubled.
canon
A style of writing in which an extended melody is imitated strictly and entirely in one or more voices.
diminution
The presentation of a melody or motive with the note values halved.
imitation
The immediate restatement of a melody or motive in another voice or hand.
motive (motif)
A motive is a short melodic or rhythmic pattern that appears throughout a piece. When the motive appears in the music, it may begin on a differnt note, the rhythm may change slightly, or the motive may be inverted.
repetition
Repetition occurs when a melodic or rhythmic pattern is repeated.
sequence
A sequence occurs when a melodic pattern in repeated at a higher or lower pitch, usually a 2nd or 34rd above or below the original pattern.
binary form
Music in binary form has two sections: section A and section B. Each section is usually repeated. The A section often ends on the dominant note, the B section ends on the tonic.
ternary form
Music written in the ternary form has three sections: section A, section B, and repeat of section A. The two sections are often contrasting in character or style.
sonata
The sonata is a composition for piano which has separate sections called movements. The movements are usually contrasting in tempo and character.
sonatina
The sonatina is a short sonata, usually designed for instruction. A sonatina may have one, two, or three movements. The movements are usually contrasting in tempo and character.
Sonata-Allegro Form
Firstmovements of sonatas and sonatinas are frequently written in a form called "sonata-allegro" or first movement form.
Exposition section
A. first theme: tonic key
B. second theme: dominant key, or relative Major if the piece is in minor key.
C. closing theme (optional)
Development section
Themes are presented in new keys. New themes may be added.
Recapitulation section
A. first theme: tonic key
B. second theme: tonic key
C. closing theme (optional)
Rondo
Music in rondo form has a recurring theme (A) that appears between constrasting sections (B, C, etc.)
Polyphonic Texture
Music with two or more independent parts or voices (melodies).
Homophonic Texture
Music with melody and accompaniment.