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69 Cards in this Set

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Gray matter contains...
contains cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons & neuroglia
What is purpose of gray matter?
site of synaptic contact between neurons
nuclei
clusters of nerve cell bodies
White matter contains...
contains myelinated axon
what are tracts?
bundles of myelinated axons
4 regions of the brain?
brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum
What are meninges?
fibrous ct coverings that enclose brain & spinal cord
what is dura mater?
outermost meninx of dense irregular ct & lines cranial cavity & surrounds spinal cord
What is epidural space?
between dura mater & wall of vertebral canal, fulled with blood cells, adipose tissue & loose ct
where is cranial dura mater?
lies tightly against cranial bones
what is Arachnoid mater?
middle meninx composed of delicate collagen fibers & some elastic fibers
what is subdural space?
fluid filled, seperates arachnoid mater from dura mater
what is pia mater?
thin layer of transparent collagen & elastic fibers that adheres to spinal cord & brain
subarachnoid space
filled with CSF
What do choroid plexuses do?
secrete CSF
What is CSF?
clear, colorless liquid with proteins, glusose, urea, salts & various ions serving several purposes
3 functions of CSF?
1)allows brain to float in cavity
2)shock absorber
3)medium for exchanging nutrients & wastes
what is the circulation route of CSF?
circulates through ventricles, central canal & subarachcnoid space whre it is reabsorbed back into blood
what is hydrocephalus?
can be caused by any obstruction or inflammation of the brain that interferes w/ circulation of CSF
what is the medulla oblongata?
continuation of spinal cord forming inferior part of brainstem
What are motor tracts?
connect brain to spinal cord
What is decussation?
left pyramid controls right side of body & vice versa
what are olives?
oval swellings that have nuclei that relay sensory info from brain and or spinal cord to cerebellum
what has control centers vital to homeostasis
medulla oblongata
where is the pons?
directly superior to medulla & anterior to cerebellum
how is the pons organized?
has tracts & nuclei that connect brain w/ spinal cord & parts of brain with each other
what does the pons control?
respiration, equilibrium, posture, taste, swallowing, hearing
where is the midbrain
extends from pons to lower portion of diencephalon
what are cerebral peduncles?
help anchor cerebrum to brainstem
what is the function of cerebral peduncles?
tracts carry motor signals to medulla oblongata
what is the red nucleus
in midbrain

connects w/ cerebellum to permit fine motor control
what does the substantia nigra do
controls subconcious muscle actions
what happens with the degeneration of neurons?
leads to tremors of Parkinson's disease
What is the tectum
posterior portion of midbrain
what is corpora quadrigemina?
protrudes from midbrain's roof
what are the superior colliculi
erve as reflex centers for movements of head, neck, & eyeballs in response to visual stimuli
what are inferior colliculi
serve as reflex centers for movements of head in response to auditory stimuli
where is the cerebellum located?
occupies inferior & posterior region of cranial cavity
how is the cerebellum organized?
right & left cerebral hemispheres connected by a medial vermis
what is arbor vitae?
deep tree-like mass of white matter in cerebellum
what is the surface of the cerebellum like?
consists of leaf like ridges of gray matter called folia
what does the inferior peduncle do?
connects medulla oblongata w/ cerebellum
what does the middle peduncle do?
carry signals from pons to cerebellum
what do the superior peduncles do?
carry motor signals out of cerebellum
what are the two functions of the cerebellum
1) coordinates subconcious movements of skeletal muscle

2)recieves sensory info about position of body parts to maintain control
What is an Electroencephalogram (EEG)?
provides record of brainwaves when brain cells generate considerable elecrical activity as a result of nerve cell transmission
what are alpha waves?
occur in individuals when awake & resting w/ closed eyes
When do alpha waves disappear?
when a person is mentally disengaged or asleep
what are beta waves?
present when a person is alert & mentally active
what are theta waves?
occur in children or sleeping adults
what do theta waves in awake adults indicate?
emotional stress or brain disorders
what are delta waves?
present in alert infats & sleeping adults
What do delta waves in awake adults indicate?
serious brain damage
what is sleep?
a state of temporary unconciousness from which an individual can be aroused
what controls sleep?
nuclei in hypothalamus & brainstem
What is stage 1 of REM?
transition between wakefulnes & sleep when we relax & let mind wander
what is stage 2 of REM?
"light sleep" characterized by brain waves called sleep spindles & harder to awaken
what is stage 3 of REM?
"moderate sleep" when body temp, BP, pulse & breathing rate decrease
what is stage 4 of REM?
deep sleep where muscles are very relaxed
how many episodes of REM occur in a night?
3-5
why does dreaming occur during REM?
brian may organize and/or strengthen memories or get rid of unwanted memories
what is the anatomy of the spinal cord?
slender cylindrical column extending from medulla oblongata through foramen magnum into vertebral canal to second lumbar vertebra
what are the two enlargements of the spinal cord
1) cervical
2) lumbar
what happens to the spinal cord below the lumbar enlargement?
cord tapers to form medullary cone which is anchored to base of spine by fibrous CT
what is the cauda equina?
formed by spinal nerves tha arise from lower part of spinal cord
hows is the spinal cord seperated?
anterior median fissure & posterior median sulcus
what is the central canal?
runs the length of the spinal cord & is filled w/ CSF
What do the ascending tracts of the spinal cord do?
carry sensory signals from peripheral receptors up spinal cord to brain
what do the decending tracts of the spinal cord do?
carry motor signal from brainstem down spinal cord to skeletal musscles in periphery