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45 Cards in this Set

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In fetal development, what type of tissue does the CNS develop from?
Ectoderm
What are the steps of the development of the CNS?
1. Neural plate forms (along one surface of the embryo.

2. Cells of ectoderm differentiate to neurons & neuroglia.

3. Neural groove forms (along midline of neural plate)

4. Cellular mitosis occurs lateral to groove and form neural folds.

5. The neural folds adjoin & fuse to form neural crest. Groove becomes neural tube. The crest becomes the PNS. The tube becomes the CNS.

6. The cephalic end of the tube develops into the major brain regions.
In fetal CNS development, what are the major regions of the brain in the neural tube and what do they develop into?
Diencephalon > thalamus & hypothalamus

Tri or Telencephalon > R & L cerebral hemispheres

Mesencephalon > midbrain

Metencephalon > pons & cerebellum

Myelencephalon > medulla oblongata
What is it called when one hemisphere of the brain has dominant function over the other?
Lateralization.
What are some functions of the left cerebral hemisphere?
>Control of skeletal muscle movements on right side.
>Ability to reason
>Numerical & scientific skills
>Spoken & written language
What are some functions of the right cerebral hemisphere?
>Control skeletal muscle movements on left side.
>Attention
>Musical & artistic awareness
>Spatial & pattern awareness
>Recognition of faces
>Emotional content of language
What does the cerebral cortex consist of?
Neuronal cell bodies (gray matter), interneurons, unmyelinated axons, some dendrites & neuroglia
What is the function of the gyri & sulci?
>Increase surface area
>Organize cerebral cortex
What sulcus separates the frontal & parietal lobes?
Central sulcus
What sulcus separates the temporal lobe from the frontal & parietal lobes?
Lateral cerebral sulcus
What is the cerebral white matter primarily composed of?
Myelinated axons & dendrites
What are the 3 types of tracts white matter is arranged into and what is the difference between them?
>Association tracts-communication within same hemisphere
>Commisural tracts-communication with opposite hemispheres
>Projection tracts-communication btwn brain & spinal cord
What are the 3 major basal nuclei individually and collectively?
1. Globus pallidus
2. Putamen
3. Caudate

Collectively called Corpus Striatum. 1 & 2 together are the Lentiform nuclei.
What is the function of the basal nuclei?
>receives info from thalamus & relay it to prefrontal & premotor cortices

Motor functions
>Maintain muscle tone for movements
>Begin & end movements
>Unconscience control of skeletal muscles
What is the function of the primary somatosensory area/post-central gyrus?
Receives sensory info from skin & muscles regarding temp, touch, pain, & proprioception
What is the function of the primary visual area?
Receive info from optic nerve (CNII) regarding vision including color, shape, & movement
What is the fxn of the primary auditory area?
Interpret pitch, rhythum, loudness of sound
What is the fxn of the primary motor area/precentral gyrus?
>Contraction of skeletal muscles
>Skilled & precise voluntary movement
>Planning movements
What is the fxn of the premotor area?
>Coordinate groups of muscles for specific tasks
>Recognize sequence of muscles used in that task
What is the fxn of Broca's speech area?
>Stimulate muscle contraction for speech
>Plans sounds
What is the fxn of the frontal eye field?
Control extrinsic eye muscles
What do the association areas of the brain do?
>Receive info from primary sensory & motor areas
>Associate & integrate info & save for future recognition
What is the fxn of the visual association area?
Correlate current visual images w/ stored & previous visual images
What is the fxn of the auditory association area?
Distinguish btwn sounds (music vs. speech)
What is the fxn of the somatosensory assocation area?
>Interpret info from primary somatosensory area
>Determine shape & texture
>Sensory storage
What is the fxn of Wernickes speech area?
Create understandable language
What is the fxn of the prefrontal cortex?
Planning, judgement, emotion, language, comprehension
What is the brain stem made up of?
Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
What is the fxn of the medulla oblongata?
>relay sensory & motor info btwn spinal cord & brain

Nuclei
>Contains nuclei for 5 of 12 CN
>Rhythmicity center-respiration rate
>Cardiovascular center-regulates heart rate, blood pressure, vasomotor tone
>Contain nuclei that control reflexes including coughing, sneezing, vomiting
What is the medulla oblongata composed of?
Nuclei & white matter tracts, w/ no arrangement except for pyramids (elevations on inferior surface of medulla)
What is the fxn of the pons?
>Relay sensory & motor info.

Nuclei
>Contain nuclei for 4 CN
>Involved in respiration
>Works w/ cerebellum in controlling muscle movements & posture based on incoming info.-proprioception
What is the fxn of the midbrain?
>Relay sensory & motor info

Nuclei
>Contain auditory & visual centers-responds to stimuli by altering head & eye position (Corpora quadrigemina-2 superior & inferior colliculi)
>Assist other areas of brain w/ muscle movements (e.g. substaintia nigra)
>RAS (Reticular Activating System)-regulates level of alertness by monitoring all sensory info
What is the structure that connects the cerebellum to the brain stem?
Cerebellar peduncles
The cerebellum is composed of two layers the cerebellar cortex and the deep white matter referred to as________.
Arbor vitae (tree of life)
What is the fxn of the cerebellum?
>Help coordinate activities of groups of muscles by relaying sensory info to cerebrum
>Help smooth movements (for effeciency & coordination)
>Posture & balance
What is the diencephalon?
The thalamus & hypothalamus
What is the fxn of the thalamus?
>crude sensory interpretation
>relay station for sensory info (determines where to send info)
What is the fxn of the hypothalamus?
Homeostasis center of brain:
>Controls ANS
>Eating & drinking
>Sleeping & waking
>Emotions
>Control endocrine fxns
>thermoregulation
What is the anatomical difference between cranial & spinal dura mater?
Cranial
>Fused to skull
>2 layers, fused but separate in areas creating dural sinuses filled w/ blood

Spinal
>Not fused to vertebrae, space btwn called epidural space containing adipose tissue & blood vessels
>1 layer, lacking dural sinuses
Where is the subarachnoid space located? What fluid fills this space?
Btwn arachnoid & pia mater; filled w/ CSF
Pia mater is an anatomical component of the__________.
Choroid plexus
CSF is lower in ___, ___, ___, ____, then plasma and higher in ____, ___, ____.
Lower-K+, Ca2+, glucose, HCO3-

Higher-Na+, Cl-, Mg2+
What are the fxn of CSF?
>Cushion CNS
>Transport nutrients & wastes
>Buoy brain (reduces weight)
CSF is produced by what 3 structures?
>Capillaries
>Pia mater
>Ependymal cells-neuroglia;specialized epithelium (simple ciliated columnar); lines all ventricles of brain
Describe the flow of CSF.
1. Lateral ventricles-produced by choroid plexus on floor of lateral ventricles
2. Intraventricular foramina
3. 3rd ventricle (+ more CSF)
4. Cerebral aqueduct
5. 4th ventricle (+ more CSF)
6. Median & Lateral apertures-Median to central canal of spinal cord, Lateral to subarachnoid space of meninges
7. All flows back into subarachnoid space on superior surface of brain eventually
8. CSF flows from arachnoid villi into dural sinuses returning to circulatory system