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58 Cards in this Set

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OVERALL ORGANIZATION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
What are the 2 main groups
CNS: brain & spinal cord (central nervous sys)
PNS: bundles of nerves extending from brain & spinal cord (peripheral nervous sys)
PNS
what are the 2 division of PNS
Afferent : snesory nerve fibers that bring information to the brain like tactile, pain receptors
Efferent: nerves that deliver signals to muscles & glands
EFFERENT MOTOR NEURONS
what are the 2 divisions
Somatic : Voluntary control
Autonomic: Involuntary Functions
SNS
PNS
HISTOLOGY
what is it like
What are the types
A system of densely packed cellular networks
2 principle types:
Neuron
Neuroglia (play supportive roles)
NEUROGLIA
what is its function
what are the types
Supportive/Metabolic
4 types of neuroglia cells
Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal, & Oligodendrocytes/Schwann Cells
ASTROCYTES
name derived from?
what is the cytoplasm abundant in?
Name derived from star-like shape of the cell. dozens of fine radiating projections.
-Cytoplasm: abundant with a variety of filaments that add support/rigidity
-Abundant in glycogen granules (supply energy)
ASTROCYTES
Functions
1. Energy: glycogen (backup supply)
2. Froms part of BBB:blood brain barrier
3. Buffering: K+ uptake (takes up K levels when they are too high)
4. Removes NTX from CSF: glutamate, GABA, glycine
5. Immunity: release cytokines (inflammation)
6. Nerve growth: adhesion molecules, scaffolding
MICROGLIA
descripe them
are they usually active or in active
when do they activate?
What doe they have?
What does degree of activation depend on?
What does it secrete?
-highly branched cells, sparse cytoplasm
-usually inactive, activate during injury
-have functional plasticity. can change function as needed
-have phagocytic activity: remove neuronal debris
-degree of activation depends on extent of injury
-secrete substances required for cell differentiation & growth
EPENDYMAL CELLS
what is there size & shape
contains
lines
involved in
Vary in shape & size
Often have cilia
Lines ventricles & spinal cord
Involved in circulating CSF
OLIGODENDROCYTES
involved in?
what about schwann cells
Involved in myelination of the CNS
Schwann cells: similar cell type, involved in melination of the PNS
MYELINATION
what is it?
What is the process?
Nodes of Ranvier?
Insulation for neuronal wire
Process: cells envelop the nearby
axon, laying down multiple layers of
a lipid called sphingomyelin (insulation)
Gaps exist between each mylinated area, called Nodes of Ranvier
-Ion channels underneath covered layers degrade
THE NEURON
carries?
consists?
soma contains? lacks?
Carries electrical information
Consists of a cell body called soma
Soma has usual organelles
Lacks centrioles = no mitosis
THE NEURON
what are the structures that extend from the soma?
Axon & Dendrites
AXON
how many axons in a neuron?
how do they branch?
what does the cell lack/contain?
how does it get energy & NTX
what is the Function?
-1 axon per neuron
-May branch out along its length
-May branch upwards at terminal end 10000 times to form nerve terminals
-Contain some organelles
-Lacks centrioles, Gogli, ER
-Rely on soma & cytoskeletal transport for energy, NTX
-F-transports msgs away from cell body
DENDRITES
how is it branched
what organelles does it contain?
function?
Diffusely branched structure
Contain all necessary organelles
Receives input from neighboring
axons & delivers it to some
RECEIVES MSG
SYNAPSE
greek meaning?
how is it structured?
which are axons? dendrites?
Means to fasten together
Structure: small knobs that lie on
surface of axons & dendrites
Axons = pre synaptic
Dendrites = post synaptic
PRE SYNAPTIC TERMINALS
what can they be catag. as?
what are the important features?
what is the membrane like?
-Can be excitatory or inhibitory
-Important features: cytoskeleton, transmitter vessicles, lg qty of mitochondria
-Membrane: lg qty of voltage-gated Ca++ channels
PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS
how do channels open?
What does Ca++ influx do?
When an AP occurs: a certain voltage is reached that opens Ca++ channels
Ca++ influx: allows for release of NTX via exocytosis
POST SYNAPTIC TERMINALS
Lg qty of receptor proteins (accepts NTX)
NTX will interact with receptor to propagate signal
RECEPTORS
basic types
functions
Ionotropic (movement of ions)
Metabotropic (2nd msgers)
Function: signal propagation
IONOTROPIC
what type of channels
location
lined with?
repels?
Cation/Anion channels
Imbedded in membrane
Lineed with AA of opp charge of ion
they want to attract
Serve to repel nearby anions
IONOTROPIC RECEPTORS CONT'D
Structure
What happens to pores?
What happens to subunits?
Action?
Structure: usually mult. protein subunits that assemble to form a gated pore
-pore can open when activated to allow ion influx
-subunits can vary to allow for varying degrees of activity
-Action:agonist binds, allows for conformational change, channel opens > activity
METABOTROPIC RECEPTORS
GPCRs
what is it?
Contains?
Activates?
Large helical, membrane spanning protein
-Contains G protein: specialized protein that can bind GTP & has GTPase activity
-Process activates 2nd msgers that can stimiulate/inhibit
METABOTROPIC RECEPTORS
is a basic __ __ __?
agonist binds to?
conformational change?
GTP?
Singal?
-basic mechanism of activation
-agonist binds to GPCR
-conformation change: exposes G protein which binds to GTP
-initiates/inhibits downstream second msger system
-GTP hydrolyzes, G protein activates
-Signal ceases
NTXs: ACH
Synthesis?
Receptors?
Degradation?
Acetylcholine
Synthesis-acetic acid+Coenzyme A form Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA + Choline form ACH
Receptors for ACH: Nicotinic, Muscarinic
Degradation: Acetylcholinsterase
NTXs: BIOGENIC AMINES
derived from?
follow?
steps
what will neurons producing a NTX possess?
-Derived from Tyrosine
-Follow enzymatic pathway
-Tyrosine > DOPA > Dopamine >Norepinephrine > Epinephrine
-Neurons producing a particular NTX will possess only the enzymes necessary to make that particular NTX
BIOGENIC AMINES: DOPAMINE
location?
what does it interact with?
what does this affect?
Inactivated by?
-Most DA producing neurons are located in substantia nigra (black substance of the midbrain)
-Interacts w/ variety of receptor types
-Affects mood (ie depression, parkinsons disease)
-Inactivated by MAO (monoamine oxydase)
BIOGENIC AMINES: NOREPINEPHRINE
location
what do they interact with?
implicated in?
Cell bodies that mfr NE are located in locus coeruleus of the midbrain
-Interact with "adrenergic" receptors
-Implicated in mood, dpression, addiction
INDOLAMINES
2 types
what are each
from what are each derived
Serotonin: NTX (affects mood)
-derived from tryptophan
Histamine: gets released to produce inflammation
-derived from histidine
INDOLAMINES: SEROTONIN
location
interact with?
implicated in?
Cell bodies of serotonin mfr'ing neurons reside in raphe nuclei
-Interact with a variety of serotonin receptor subtypes
-Implicated in mood, dpression: SSRI
SEROTONIN RECEPTORS
types
5 HT3: chemoreceptive center (emesis

Antagonists: Ondansetron
AMINO ACIDS
types
# of AAs have been Id'd to have NTX activity
-Glutamate: excitatory (opens Ca channels)
-Glycine: inhibitory (spinal cord - opens chloride channels)
-GABA: CNS inhibitory (opens chloride channels)
-Pharmacological implications
NEOROPEPTIDES
what are they?
what are some?
-strings of AAs
-Endorphins, Enkaphalins (runners high, 2nd wind)
-Substance P (pain)
-Tachykinins
NOVEL NTXs (GASES)
types
NO: LTP (long-term memmories)
CO: may reg. cGMP levels in CNS (thought to play role in memmory as well)
THE BRAIN
what is it
what is it called?
what does it control
Central "switchboard"
Master Computer
Controls mult. of activities
THE BRAIN: embryonically
what happens at 3 weeks gest.
what happens at 4 weeks gest.
3 weeks: brain forms nueral plate. Neural plate invaginates forming groove, flanked by 2 nueral folds. Folds fuse to form nueral tube.
4 weeks: Neural tube differentiates caudally forming spinal cord & anteriorly forming brain
THE BRAIN
divided into?
describe the surface?
elevated ridges are called?
shallow grooves are called?
deep grooves are called?
divided into 2 cerebral hemispheres
-surface is grooved
-elevated ridges: gyri
-shallow grooves: sulci
-deep grooves: fissures
THE BRAIN: CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
hemispheres make up how much of the brain?
what do the hemispheres form?
what are the 3 regions of the cerebral hemispheres?
83-85% of brain mass
form superior portion of brain
3 regions: Cortex, white matter, basal nuclei
CORTEX:
involves?
where is it located?
how thick is it?
composed of?
contains?
involves the conscious mind
most superficial
2-4 mm thick
composed of gray matter: soma, dendrites, & axons
-contains 6 layers w/ billions of neurons
CORTEX CONT'D
how many fuctional areas?
3 functional areas:
motor
sensory
association
MOTOR AREAS
control?
location?
broken down into how many subdivisions & what are they?
Controls voluntary movement
Located on the posterior portion of the frontal lobes
-Broken down into several subdivisions:
Primary, Premotor, Broccas, & Frontal eye
PRIMARY MOTOR AREAS
contains?
by where is each muscle controlled
how do these areas work?
Contains large nerve tracts called pyramidal tracts
-A given muscle is controlled by a particular area of the primary motor cortex
-Areas work synergistically
PREMOTOR MOTOR AREAS
what do they control
what's an example?
Controls learned, repititious motor skills
examples: instrument, typing
BROCCAS MOTOR AREAS
location?
where present?
function?
Inferior to premotor area
usually present only in 1 hemisphere (usually the left)
-becomes active to direct muscles involved in speech production
FRONTAL EYE FIELD MOTOR AREAS
location?
controls?
Anterior to premotor area
controls voluntary eye movement
CORTEX: SENSORY AREAS
involved in?
divided into how many subdivisions, what are they?
involved in receiving & interpreting sensory input

divided into 7 subdivisions: primary, sensory association, visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, vestibular
PRIMARY SENSORY CORTEX\
function?
receives info from sensory receptors in the skin & skeletal muscle
SENSORY ASSOCIATION OF THE SENSORY CORTEX
locatoin
function
ability to ?
posterior to primary sensory
integrates sensory input (temp, pressure, texture.)
ability to ID unseen objects
VISUAL SENSORY CORTEX
location?
function?
lies near?
posterior to tip of occipital
recieves visual info from retina
lies in close proximity to an area called the visual association area, which interprets this data
AUDITORY SENSORY CORTEX
location?
function?
where is this data interpreted by?
superior margin of temporal lobe
obtains info about pitch, rhythm, & loudness from auditory receptors
-this data interpreted by association areas
OLFACTORY SENSORY CORTEX
function
smell & perception of odors
GUSTATORY SENSORY CORTEX
location?
function?
in temporal lobe
receptors from tip of tongue transmit information regarding taste
VESTIBULAR SENSORY CORTEX
function?
conscious awareness of balance
ASSOCIATION AREAS OF CORTEX
associated with?
communicate with?
divided into __ catagories? they are
Closely associated with motor/sensory areas

Communicate with the centers
-divided into 4 subdivisions: prefrontal, language, general interpretation, & visceral
PREFRONTAL ASSOCIATION AREAS OF CORTEX
location?
involves?
anterior frontal lobe
involves intellect, cognition, recall, personality, judgement, reasoning, planning, conscience
LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION AREAS OF CORTEX
involves?
wernickes?
broccas?
lateral?
comprehension & articulation of sounds
wernickes=sounding out words
broccas=speech production
lateral=word analysis & comprehension
GENERAL INTERPRETATION ASSOCIATION AREAS OF CORTEX
location?
encompasses?
function?
usually in left hemi
encompasses temporal, parietal, &
occiptal hemi's
receives input from all sensory association areas & integrates it into a single thought
VISCERAL ASSOCIATION AREAS OF CORTEX
what is it?
examples
conscious perception of visceral sensations
exampe: full bladder, upset stomach, etc.