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175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the CN origin of the Otic ganglion?
CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)
with what CN is the ciliary ganglion found?
on CN III (Occulomotor nerve)
What is the function of the pterygopalatine ganglion? (f/ CN VII)
drives lacrimation (tears) and salivation of pterygic gland (salivation)

glands of nasal and oral cavities and lacrimal glands
what do the adrenal glands release?
adrenaline
what gland is responsible for producing tears?
the lacrimal gland
where are the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic system located?
in the brain regions of CN III VII IX X and in the spinal cord at levels S2-S4
where are the postganlionic cells of the parasympathetic system located?
at one of the cranial ganglia near to their target tissue
what is the funtion the ciliary ganglion?
it constricts the pupils and changes the shape of the lens
where do the parasympathetic fibers for the ciliary ganglion (on CN III) originate?
Edinger-Westphal neucleus of the midbrain
what is the CN origin of the submandibular ganglion?
CN VII Facial
what is the function of the submandibular ganglion?
affects the submandibular and sublingual glands --- salivary glands
what does the otic ganglion affect?
the porotid salivary gland
what are the origins of the terminal ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system?
CN X (Vagus) and pelvic nerves formed from S2-S4
what parasympathetic postganglion are collected very near to or even with in the organ being innervated?
terminal ganglion (CN X and S2-4)
where do tears collect?
in the nasolacrimal duct
where does the abducens originate?
the lower pons
what is another name for the sympathetic nervous system?
thoracolumbar
what kind of nerve is CN VIII?
sensory
what three CN's innervate muscles of the eye?
CN III, IV, VI
what glands are affected by the ANS?
sweat glands, salivary glands, adrenal glands
how does the ANS affect the respiratory system?
it controls the diameter of the airways (Smoothmuscle)
how does the ANS affect the eyes?
controls the diameter of the pupils (smooth muscles)
what is another name for the parasympathetic nervous system?
craniosacral
the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system creat a state of equillibrium or ____
homeostasis
which system responds to the "flight or fight syndrome"?
sympathetic
where is the preganglionic cells of the ANS found?
in the CNS
where do preganglionic cells synapse on?
post ganglionic cells
where do post ganglionic cells project to?
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or gland
Where are the preganglionic cells of the sypathetic nervous system found?
on the sminal cord in the lateral horns of T1-L2
which horn gives rise to the preganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system?
lateral horn
what is another name for the paravertebral ganglia?
the sympathetic trunk
which side of the vertebral column are the paravertebral ganglia found?
the ventrolateral side
what are the three pairs of prevertebral ganglia?
ciliac ganglian
superior messentaric ganglion
inferior messentaric ganglion
what kind of postganglianic cels are in a chain of paired ganglia which extends from the base of the skull to the coccyx ?
the paravertebral ganglia
what kind of postganglianic cells are located anterior to the vertebral column?
prevertebral ganglia
what is the function of the postganglionic cell?
to innervate the target tissue
how does the autonomic nervous system affect digestion?
it affects the smooth muscles...
its motility (turns on or off)
how does the ANS affect blood vessels?
controls diameter
contracts or relaxes their smooth muscle
how does the ANS affectt the heart?
controls the rate of cardiac muscle contraction (speed up/slow down)
where do the muscle fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve come from?
medulla
through which foramen of the skull does the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) exit?
jugular foramen
which CN's exit the skull through the internal acoustic meatus?
facial and acoustic
where does the vagus nerve (CN X) orginate?
medulla
what are the functions of the vagus nerve?
carries sensory info from the neck, thorax, and abdomen

carries motor fiber to the muscles of the palate, pharynx and larynx
what nerve carries senory info from the neck, thorax and abdomen?
vagus nerve CN X
what nerve carries motor fibers to muscles of the palate, pharynx and larynx?
Vagus nerve CN X
what nerve carries sensory info from the posterior 1/3 of the tonge and motor fibers to the muscles of the pharynx?
glossopharyngeal CN IX
what foramen does the vagus nerve exit through?
jugular foramen
what is the function of the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
innervates muscles of pharynx and larynx, neck and trapezius
what foramen does the spinal accessory exit the brain through?
jugular foramen
what is the function of the hypoglossal nerve?
innervates the muscles of the tongue
what CN is a spinal component of the upper cervical rootlets and a cranial component from the medulla?
CN XI spinal accessory
what nerves exit through the jugular foramen?
glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory
where does the vagus originate from ?
medulla
where does the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) come from?
the medulla
what is the meaning of "Glossopharyngeal"
"tongue" and "pharynx"
what foramen does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull through?
the hypoglossal canal
what nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue?
hypoglossal
what nerves carry sensory info from the tongue (what parts)?
anterior 2/3:facial nerve (CN VII)

posterior 1/3 glossopharyngeal CN IX
what CN carries olfactory information?
CN I (Olfactory nerve)
What CN carries visual information?
CN II Optic nerve
what CN carries motor fibers to most of the eye muscles?
CN III Occulomotor nerve
what CN carries motor fibers to the superior oblique eye muscle?
CN IV Trochlear nerve
which of the trigeminal nerves carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication?
V3 (mandibular nerve)
what kind of nerve is CN IX?
sensory and motor
what CNs' go to the pons?
trigeminal
abducens
facial
acoustic
CN V-VIIi
what CNs emerge from the medulla?
CN IX-XII
glossopharyngeal
vagus
spinal accessory
hypoglossal
what CN innervates the superior oblique eye muscle?
trochlear (Only function!!)
What CN carries sense info from the face?
trigeminal (CN V)
what trigeminal nerve carries sense info from the upper face?
CN V1 opthalamic nerve
what trigeminal nerve carries sensory info from the nose, mid-face and upper teeth?
CN V2 maxillary nerve
what CN innervates the lateral rectus eye muscle?
CN VI Abducens
what is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
to regulate the internal environment/maintenance of normal bodily functions
what CN carries motor fibers to muscles of facial expression? What is its other function?
CN VII Facial Nerve

carry sense info from anterior 2/3 of tongue
what is innervated by the autonomic nervous system?
smooth and cardiac muscle (involuntary) and different glands
what nervous system is the vegetative or visceral nervous system?
autonomic nervous system
what muscles does the occulomotor nerve innervate?
most muscles of the eye
superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscles
inferior oblique
lavaetor palpebrae
What "chemical equation" gives the CN's and the eye muscles they innervate?
LR6(SO4) 3
lateral rectus by CN VI
Superior Oblique by CN IV
Rest by CN III
where on the brain does CN IV emerge from?
dorsal mart of mid brain
what foramen does the trochlear nerve exit through?
superior orbital fissure
where does the trigeminal nerve come off of?
the pons
through what foramen of the skull does the Opthalmic nerve exit?
the superior orbital fissure
what is the name of CN V1?
opthalmic nerve
what is the name of CN V2?
maxillary nerve
what is the function of the trochlear nerve?
to innervate the superior oblique eye muscle
where does the maxillary nerve exit the skull?
the foramen rotundum
what is the name of CN V3?
mandibular nerve
through which foramen of the skull does the mandibular nerve exit?
foramen ovale
what is the function of the opthalmic nerve?
carries sensory information from the upper face
what is the function of the maxillary nerve?
carries sensory information from the nose, face and upper teeth
what is the function of the mandibular nerve?
sensory information from the lower face, tongue and lower teeth
innervates muscles of mastication
which nerves exit the skull through the superior orbital fissure?
occulomotor
trochlear
opthalmic (CN V1)
abducens
which foramen does the abducens exit the skull through?
superior orbital fissure
what is the funtion of the abducens (CN VI)
innervates lateral rectus (eye muscle)
where deos the Facial Nerve (CN VII) emerge off of ?
the lower pons
what are the fuctions of the Facial nerve?
carry sensory info (taste) from anterior 2/3 of tongue
carries motor fibers to muscles of facial expression
through what foramen does the Facial nerve (CN VII) exit?
internal acoustic meatus
what is the function of the Acoustic Nerve (CN VIII)
carries hearing and equillibrium sensory info from the inner ear to the pons
what part of the inner ear does the acoustic nerve receive hearing info from?
cochlea
what part of the inner ear does CN VIII receive equilibrium info from?
semicircular canals
where does the Acoustic (Vestibulocochlear) nerve (CN VIII) exit the skull?
internal acoustic meatus
where are impulses for audition relayed?
to the medial geniculate body of the thalamus

auditory cortex in temporal lobe
what are the functions of the glossalpharyngeal nerve? CN IX?
carries sensory (taste) info from posterior 1/3 of the tongue

carries motor fibers from medulla to muscles of the pharynx
what kind of nerve is CN V3?
sensory and motor
What kind of nerve is CN VI?
motor
What kind of nerve is CN VII?
sensory and motor
what kind of nerve is CN X?
sensory and motor
what kind of nerve is CN XI?
motor
what kind of nerve is CN XII?
motor
what is the pneumonic device for the names of the cranial nerves?
On Old Olympus Towering Top, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops
what is the pneumonic device for the kind of nerves each CN is?
Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More
what is the only sensory imput NOT relayed via the thalamus?
olfaction
What do the olfactory sensory neural impulses from the receptors in the NASAL MUCOSA going to the the olfactory bulb go through?
cribiform plate of the ethmoid
Where are the olfactory receptor cells located?
in the nasal mucosa
For the sensory information coming from the olfactory receptors, the olfactory bulb cells project through the _______ to the _____.
Olfactory tract
olfactory cortex
what information is carried by CN I?
olfactory sense info
what bone does the Olfactory Nerve pass through to enter the brain?
the cribiform plate of the ethmoid
what foramen does CN II enter the skull through?
the optic foramen
where do half of the optic nerve fibers cross?
optic chiasm
which half of the optic nerves cross at the optic chiasm?
those coming from the temporal or peripheal half of the visual field
what is the path of all of the optic nerves (leaving out the crossing)
retina--through optic foramen--optic tract--lateral geniculate body of the thalamus---geniculoclacarin tract---visual cortex
where is the lateral geniculate body?
on the thalamus
where on the thalamus do the optic nerves synapse?
lateral geniculate body
what is another name for the geniculocalcarine tract?
optic radiation
where is the primary visual cortex located?
on the calcarine fissure of the occipital lobe
what do lateral geniculate cell project as and where to?
optic radiation or geniculocalcarine tract

primary visual cortex
through what foramen of the skull does the occulomotor nerve exit?
superior orbital fissure
what part of the brain does the occulomotor nerve emerge off of?
the mid brain
what kind of nerve is CN V1?
sensory
what kind of nerve is CN V2?
sensory
what kind of nerve was V2?
sensory
where is the spinal cord located?
in the vertebral canal from foramen magnus to L1/L2
where are the two enlargements of the spinal cord?
cervix and lumbar region
how many cervical nerves are there?
8
how many thoracic nerves are there?
12
how many lumbar nerves are there?
5
how many sacral nerves are there?
5
howmany coccygeal nerves are there?
1
how many spinal nerves are there?
31
what information do the dorsal columns carry?
general sensory info (touch, pressure, tactile discrimination, and kinesthesis)
what information does the fasciculus gracilis carry?
from the lower limb and trunk
what areas of the body does the fasciculus cuneatus get info from?
from the upper limb/trunk
what is the pathway of the dorsal columns?
dorsal root ganglion--nucleus gracilis/cutaneous (CROSS ENROUTE TO VPL OF THALAMUS)--thalamus projects to somatosensory cortex
what is the pathway of the dorsal columns?
dorsal root ganglion--nucleus gracilis/cutaneous (CROSS ENROUTE TO VPL OF THALAMUS)--thalamus projects to somatosensory cortex
where do the dorsal columns cross?
at the nucleus gracilis or cutaneus
what information is carried by the lateral spinothalamic tract?
pain and temperature information
what is the pathway of the lateral spinothalamic tract
Dorsal root ganglion--dorsal horn--fibers cross to contralateral side on the way to thalamus---thalamus to postcentral gyrus
what cortex does the dorsal columns project to?
somatosensory cortex
what information does the lateral spinothalmalic tract carry?
info about pain and temp
what information does the Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract carry?
proprioceptive info to cerebellum
what is the pathway that the dorsal spinocerebellar tract takes?
Dorsal root ganglion-- dorsal horn (NUCLEUS DORSALIS)--fibers go up on the same side (IPSILATERAL) to reach cerebellum
which ascending tract does not cross?
dorsal spinocerebellar tract
what part of the dorsal horn is the 2nd neuron of the dorsal spinocerebellar?
nucleus dorsalis
what are the two areas of enlargement in the spinal cord?
cervical and lumbar
what is the name for the end of the spinal cord and what vertebrae is it found at?
CONUS MEDULLARIS
L1/2
what is the name for the connective tissue that binds the spinal cord to the saccrum?
filum terminal
what is the name for the nerve roots in the sacrum?
cauda equina
"horses tail"
which of the two spinal fissures is bigger, the anterior median fissure or the posterior median sulcus?
anterior median fissure
where can a spinal tap be easily drawn?
at the cauda equina
what spinal tract carries general sensory information?
dorsal columns
what spinal tract carries pain and temperature information?
the lateral spinothamalic tract
what spinal tract carries proprioceptive information?
the dorsal spinocerebellar tract
what tract carries motor impulses to the muscles?
the cortical spinal tract
what supplies the spinal cord with blood?
the anterior and posterior spinal arteries
both branches of the vertebral arteries
what is the pathway followed by the lateral corticospinal tract?
cortex--internal capsule--cerebral peduncles--base of pons--medullar pyramid (cross here to contralateral side)-- SYNAPSE on motor neuron--muscle
where does the corticospinal tract cross?
at the medullary pyramids
what is the medial lemniscus?
the tract on the dorsal column between the medulla and thalamus
what nucleus of the thalamus relays for the cerebellum?
ventral lateral and ventral anterior
what nucleus of the thalamus relays general sensory information for the dorsal column?
the ventral lateral posterior (VPL)
what nucleus of the thalamus relays sense info from the face?
the ventral medial posterior nucleus
what nerves carry sense info from tongue? What parts and what sense?
V3--all gen. sense
VII ant. 2/3 of taste
IX post. 1/3 of taste
what are the options a preganglionic cell has to synapse with a postganlionic cell?
go to paravertebral cell at same segment

go up or down sympathetic trunk to synapse with a postganglionic cell at a different level

got through paravertebral ganglion to synapse with prevertebral ganglion
where does the lateral spinothalamic tract cross?
on the spinal cord 1-2 segments after entry to contralateral side while ascending to thalamus
which has the longer preganglionic cells, sympathetic or parasympathetic?
parasympathetic
which of the two sympathetic or parasympathetic, have a short preganglionic nerve?
sympathetic