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80 Cards in this Set

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Outer coverings of the brain and spinal cord
Bone; craniel bones encase the brain and vertebrea encase the spinal cord
Inner coverings
Meminges of the cord continue inside the spinal cavity beyond the end of the spinal cord as the filum terminale
Dura Mater
strong white fibrous tissue out layer of meninges and inner periosteum
Arachnoid mater
Delicate cobwebby middle layer contains collegen and elastic fibers
Pia mater
innermost transparent layer adheres to the outer surface of the brain and spinal cord; contains blood vessels
Inward extentions of the dura mater
Falx cerebri
Superior Sagittal Sinus
Falx Cerebelli
Tentorium Cerebelli
Falx Cerebri
projections into longitudinal fissure between 2 hemispheres
Superior Sagittal sinus
is an area above/behind the brain, which allows blood veins to span the area,
Falx Cerebelli
separtes two hemispheres of cerebellium
Tentorium Cerebelli
separates cerebellum from cerebrum
Spaces between and around mengings
Epidural space
Subdural space
Subarchnoid space
Epidural space
between dura mater and bony covering of spinal cord absent around brain, fat & connective tissue
Subdural space
between dura mater and arachnoid mater, serous fluid
Subarachnoid space
between arachnoid mater and pia mater contains cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid functions
Lymph like fluid provides nutrients to nerve cells; provides a supportive protective cusion; reservior of circulating fluid which is monitored by the brain to detect changes in the internal environment; spial taps can gice information about injury infection or disease
Cerebrospinal fluid
found within the subarchnoid space around the brain and within cavities and canals of spinal cord and brain; acts a shock absorbers and tranposts dissolved gases nutrients and waste. formed by the separation of fluid from blood in the choroid plexuses into the ventricles
Ventricles
4 fluid filled spaces within the brain; first, second, third and fourth ventricle
First & Second ventricle
one loicated in each hemisphere of the cerebrum
Third Ventricle
thin, vertical pocket of fluid below and medial to the lateral ventricle
Fourth ventricle
tiny, diamond shaped space where the cerebellum attaches to the backi of the brainstem
Circulation route of cerebrospinal fluid
Fluid from lateral ventricles circulates through the interventricular foramen into third ventricle through cerebral aquaduct to fourth ventricle; from fourth ventricle it goes 2 places; some into the central canel of the spinal cord & some through cisterna magna into the subarachnoid space; it then absorbed back into venous blood through the arachnoid villi
Spinal cord
Lies within the spinal cavity and extends from the foramen magnum to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra; 2 enlargments, one in the cervical region and one in the lumbar region
Dorsal Nerve Root
Fibers carry sensory infromation into the spinal cord
Ventral nerve root
Fibers carry motor information out of the spinal cord
Cells bodies of motor neurons are in
gray matter of the spinal cord
Spinal nerve
a single mixed nerve on each side of the spinal cord where the dorsal and ventral nerve roots join together
Gray matter
inner portion; columns of gray matter extend the length of the cord; consists of cell bodies of motor neurons and internurons
White matter
piter portion; surrounds the gray matter and is subdived in each half of the cord into three funiculi (each funiculus consists of a large bundle of axons divided into tracts)
Cauda Equina
Bundles of nerve roots extending from conus medullaris--inferior end of spinal cord
Functions of the spinal cord
Provides conduction routes to and from the brain
Ascending tracts
conduct impulses up the cord to the brain
Descending tracts
conduct impulses down the cord from the brain
Tracts are structural
all axons from one tract originate in the same structure and terminate in the same structure
Tracts are functional
all axons composing one tract serve one another
Brainstem
perfoms sensory, motor and reflex functions; contains the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain
Medulla oblongata
lowest part of the brainstem, attaches to the spinal cord located just above the foramen magnum; regulates vital alutomatic functions
Cardiovascular center
adjusts heart rate strength of cardiac contractions and blood flow
Respiratory rhythmicity center
sets pace for repisatory rates; nonvital reflexes, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing and hiccuping. Most vital part of brain, injury or disease to medulla oblongata often fatal
Pons
located above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain, centers for relexes medicated by 5-8th cranial nerves, pheumotaxic centers-regulate respirations
Midbrain
located above the pons and below the cerbrum composed of white matter tracts that conduct impulses between the midbrain and the cerebrum
Corpora Quadrigemina
Body of 4 twins
Inferior colliculi
controls reflex movement of head, neck and trunck in response to auditory stimulation suh as a loud bang
Superior colliculi
controls reflex movements of eyes, head & neck in response to visual stimuli such as a bright light of flash
Red nucleus and substantia nigra
clusters of cell bodies involved in muscular control tone & posture
Substantia nigra
inhibits muscle over activity by relaeasing dopamine; degenerates in those woth parkinsons disease
Cerebellum
second largest part of the brain contains more neurons that the rest of the nervous system combined
Cerebellum is located
just below the psoterior portion of the cerebrum
Cerebellum contains
gray matter=outer portion cortex, white matter=inner portion arbor vitae; gyri (folia) are slender and less prominent that those of the cerebrum
Cerebellium hemispheres are separated by
vermis
Dentate Nuclei
one is each hemisphere connect with the thalamus and motor areas of cerebral cortex
Functions of the cerebellium
acts with cerebral cortx to produce skilled movements by corrdinating the activites of groups of muscles; controls skelton muscles to maintain balance; controls posture; operates at subconscious level to smooth movements and make movements efficent and corrdinated; coordinates sensory information
Diencephalon
located between the cerebrum and the midbrain
Diencephalon consists of several structures
thalamus, hypothalamus, optic chiasma and pinal gland
Talamus is made up of
gray matter = many nuclei
Talamus is joined by
intermediate mass extending through the 3rd ventricle; many axons conduct impulses into the thalamus from spinal cord brainstem, basal nuclei, cerebellum and cerebrum where they synapse with outgoing neurons to all areasw of cerebral cortex; neurons relaease sensory impulses to cerebrum, impulese produce sensation of pain, tempture touch. Emotions and arousal
Hypothalamus
lies beneath the thalamus, links body and mind, links nervouse system to endocrine system, regulates and coordinates autonomic activity, systhesizes hormones, produces behavioral drives, like hunger, thrist, and sex, regulates body tempture and maintains waking state.
Pinal gland
regulates the bodys biological daily clock, produces melatonin and asw they increase when sunlight is absent and decreases sunlight is present, high levels signal the body that is is time to sleep
Cerebrum
largest division of the brain; consist of right and left cerebral hemispheres
The hemisphere consist of
frontal lobe
parietal lobe
temporal lobe
occipital lobe
Insula - deep
Cerebral cortex
outer surface made up of gray matter
Gyri
elevated ridges increase surface area of the brain thus increasing the # of neurons in the cortex
Sulci
shallow groves
Fissures
deeper grooves
Longitudinal fissure
deeper fissure divides cerebrum into 2 hemispheres
central sulcus
groove between the frontal and parietal lobes
lateral fissure
between temporal lobe and parietal lobe
Parietoocciptal fissure
groove separates occipital from parietal lobe
Association tracts
most numerous extend from one convolution to another in same hemisphere
Commissural tracts
extend from one hemisphere tot he other (corpus
Callosum)
Projection tracts
extentions of sensory or motor tracts
Basal Nuclei
Islands of gray matter located deep inside the cerebrum; subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and the coordination of learned movement patterns give us rhythem in our movements (cycles of arm and legs movements when walking
Cerebral cortex - functional areas
Postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, transvers gyrus, opccipital lobe
Postcentral gyrus
somatic sensory area; receives information from heat, cold, pain, pressure and touch; compares and evaulates information (an ice cube in your hand
Precentral gyrus
somatic motor area; neurons direct voluntary movements of skeltal muscles, activiting groups of muscles simultaneously
Transvers gyrus
primary auditory area
Occipital lobe
primary visual area
Sensory Functions
Cortex contains a somatic sensory may of the body, processing informatin is important.
Consciousness
State of awareness of ones self, ones environment and other human beings
Functions of the cortex
Ability to speak and write words, speech centers , left hemisphere contains speech, aphasias: lesions in speech centers; emothions and meory
Limbic System
Know as emotional brain, behavioral drives, long-term memory storage and retrival, links emotions with memories such as rape, frea, happiness