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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In the legend of which saint is preserved a pre-Geoffrey mention of Arthur's victory in Gaul?
St. Goeznovius
Who is St. Goeznovius, and what is his significance?
St. Goeznovius was a 6th/7th C. saint from Brittany. In the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii is preserved mention of Arthur's victory in Gaul from before Geoffrey's Historia.
In what year and by whom was the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii likely written down?
1019 AD
From what time period does our manuscript of the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii date?
c. 15th C.
Define: "Dux bellorum"
"Leader of battle" -- A description of Arthur's social role, as given by Nennius (9th C.)
Who is C. Scott Littleton?
An individual who, in 1994, published convincing work on the Sarmatian Arthur
Define: Sarmatian
A horse-mounted, nomadic tribe of Scythians (of the Iranian language group ultimately deriving from proto-Indo-European) whose warriors on armored horses represent one of the earliest forms of cavalry. Arthur is suggested to lead (or perhaps even descend from) displaced Sarmatians.
Define: Iazyges
The subgroup of Sarmatians who ran afoul of the Romans first in 72 CE under Hadrian, and then under Marcus Aurelius in 175 CE, who conscripted some of these warriors to Britain to become (the ancestors of) Arthur's men (if not Arthur himself)
Which are the three major tribes of Scythia (i.e. the modern-day Ossetians)?
The Sarmatians
The Scythians
The Alans
Define: Scythia
The Western region of the "Sea of Grass," the land from which the Iazyges came
Define: cataphracti
"Heavily armed cavalry units"

In 175 CE, Marcus Aurelius conscripts 5,500 cataphracti from among the Iazyges to be sent to Britain. These include (or are led by, or have ancestors who are led by) Arthur.
From what source do we know about the conscription of cataphracti from among the Sarmatians and their placement in Britain?
From Dio Cassius' Roman History (c.225 CE)
Define: Lucius Artorius Castius
Leader of the Sarmatian cataphracti (stationed along Hadrian's Wall) in Britain c.175 CE. Suggested to be Arthur, but to early.
Define: Riothamus
Term meaning "high king" in Bryttonic refers to an Arthurian figure who lived around the 5th C. CE and who led a campaign in Gaul, where he was betrayed to a fatal loss, and brought to expire in the more friendly Burgundian town of Avallon
Define: Arvandus
Roman prefect of Gaul who betrayed Arthur to his death (defeats with help from Visgoths)
According to Littleton's Riothamus-Sarmatian-Arthur theory, which figure is analgous to Mordred?
Arvandus, the Roman prefect of Gaul
Define: Euric of the Visgoths
Leader of the Visgoths, a Germanic tribe descended from the Scythian Alans, c. 466-484
Onto which Celtic deity is Arthur calked, and how are the special characteristics of the one translated to the other?
Arthur is a figure analagous to the god Nodens, whose silver arm (=flaw) appears as Arthur's inability to hold on to Gwnhwyfar in the Arthurian tales.
With which animal(s) is the sovereignty goddess associated?
White Horse
Define: cowyll
Maiden fee -- gift from husband's family that must be demanded by bride before her feet touch the ground after her wedding night (as proof of her virginity)
Define: agweddi
If marriage dissolved within the 7 year "trial period," then woman gets a gift "agweddi" according to her father's rank
Define: Elen
= Elen Lwyddawg = "Elen of the hosts" = Sovereignty goddess figure from "Dream of Maxen Wledig" who is responsible for infrastructure and (in some sources) the birth of Constantine I (who brought Christianity to Rome)
What is the relationship between Maxen Wledig and Cynan Meriadoc?
Brothers in law (through Maxen + Elen = sister of Cynan)
Why is the legendary Maxen Wledig significant?
Last Roman emperor of Britain (historically untrue) + association with the founding of Brittany
Define: Magnus Maximus
A Roman official in Britain who becomes "Emperor of Britain" by appointment in 383 AD whose successful campaign in Gaul leads to his ultimate capture and beheading by Valentinian II and Theodosius
Define: Partibility
Welsh tradition of dividing patrimony equally between (legitimate and illegitimate) male heirs. Caused much fratricide etc.
Define: Llywelyn ab Iorwerth
= Llywelyn Fawr = Ruler of Gwynedd (based at Abersaint), the most powerful Welsh ruler since Roman pulled out of Wales, in commemoration of whose campaign through Wales (1215-1217) the "Dream of Emperor Maxen" manuscript as we have it today may have been developed. Slated as a Messianic deliverer of the Welsh by 1218.
Describe the descent of Gerald of Wales:
3/4 Norman, through the Geraldines (who led the Norman invasion)
1/4 Welsh, through the grandmother, Nest, the Helen-of-Troy of Powys
Define: Nest
Grandmother of Gerald of Wales. A beautiful woman whose charms were destructive to Powys
What were Gerald's major agendas through the Church?
Emphasize celebacy -- overthrow the clasau
Encourage tithes
Eliminate consanguinity
What was Gerald of Wales' dream?
To receive Bishopric at St. David's, rise to archbishop, and reform Welsh Christianity
What is the significance of water in the Celtic tradition?
Water leads to the Otherworld
What is the significance of silence in the Celtic tradition? How does this translate to the Christian tradition?
Silence is symbolic of the Otherworld in the Celtic tradition, but translates to an indication of impurity (sin) in the Christian tradition.
Why is a flawed king unfit to rule?
Because the king is an embodiment of his kingdom, so a flawed king cannot rule a perfect kingdom (see castration would to wasteland in the Grail King)
How does the "Dream of Emperor Maxen" tale pick up the mythic history of Britain as described in Geoffrey?
Plays on the tension between Wales and Rome -- in this text, the Roman emperor is essentially subject to a Welsh woman, and bested in strategy by her brothers
What noteworthy detail of the "Dream of Emperor Maxen" is corroborated in the Vita Goeznovii?
That the women of Gaul had their tongues cut out to preserve Welsh in Brittany
What noteworthy Arthurian detail in Geoffrey is corroborated by the Vita Goeznovii?
That Arthur conquered Gaul
Who was the emperor of the east during the time of Magnus Maximus?
With whom did Magnus Maximus have to share the title of "Emperor of the West" after conquering Gaul?
Valentinian II
Situate the "Dream of Emperor Maxen" text that we have with respect to the Brut and to Geoffrey's Historia
-Geoffrey's Historia was written piecemeal c. 1136
-The Dream of Emperor Maxen text that we have probably dates from about the middle of the 12th C
-The Brut was copied into Welsh in the 13th century
Define: Segontium
The Roman fort whose site became the site of Carnarfon (Abersaint), where Elen (wife of Maxen) dwelt
Define: tithes
Payment of 1/10 income to the Church
What was the purpose of the trip that Gerald took (that would be the basis for "Journey through Wales")?
To preach/recruit for the 3rd Crusade
Define: clas-au
Organizational unit of the Welsh church of abbeys whose abbotrics passed along hereditary lines (implying a de-emphasis of celibacy)
With which British King did Gerald of Wales have tension, and in what way is this shown?
With Henry II because of his refusal to grant Gerald the bishopric of St. David's. This is evident in the thinly veiled attacks at Henry II through the Journey through Wales.
In which texts are the Triads found?
In the Peniarth 16 (13th C.), Peniarth 47, Peniarth 50, Black Book of Carmarthen (1250), White Book of Rydderch (1300), Red Book of Hergest (1375)
Define: Peniarth 16
A 13th C. manuscript that contains the oldest surviving collection of the Triads
What is significant about the figure Llew Law Gyffes in the 20th triad?
An early Lugh figure that is utterly replaced by Arthur in a later version of the Triad
Define: Owain
(French analog = Yvain) The son of Urien. In early texts (e.g. Taliesin poems, Dream of Rhonabwy) is disaffiliated with Arthur (even an enemy), but becomes sucked into his orbit in later lore as the son of Urien + Modron, daughter of Avalach (Morgan LaFee = the Morrighan).
Define: Gwalchmai ap Gwyar
(French analog = Gawain) Possibly a northern hero originally. A late addition to the round table who would become the most popular figure in the northern romances.
In what time period was our version of "Culhwich and Olwen" composed, and what cues suggest this?
Around the 10th C. Details like the pen teulu-pen cenedl tension suggest an audience in the Warrior Aristocracy of this time period.
With which Celtic deity were pigs associated? With which Roman deity was this figure associated?
Lugh, associated with Mercury in the Roman tradition
What are the three divisions of Wales, as found at the dawn of the 12th C.?
Gwynedd (North)
Powys (Middle)
Deheubarth (South)
Who were the leaders of the three divisions of Wales in Geoffrey's "Journey through Wales"?
Owein Gwynedd (@ Gwynedd)
Owein Cyfeiliog (@ Powys)
Maredudd ap Gryffudd (@ Deheubarth)
Define: Madog ap Maredudd
Ruler of Powys in the mid 12th C. (whose conflict with brother Iorwerth is loosely the subject of the frame in the Dream of Rhonabwy), whose death, coupled with the complications of partibility, led to the final weakening of Powys
Between which figures was Powys split after the death of Madog ap Maredudd?
Between Dafydd ap Owein, the Prince of Gwynedd (who became the Prince of North Wales) and Rhys ap Gryffudd, Prince of Deheubarth (who would become Prince of South Wales)
Define: Partibility
The Welsh practice of dividing patrimony between all surviving male heirs (legitimate or bastard), which caused a lot of feuding within families and contributed significantly to the destabilization and overthrow of Wales
Which Welsh figured conquered South Wales after its weakening in the early 13th C.?
Llywelyn ap Iorwerth = Llywelyn Fawr (in commemoration of whose victories, or perhaps in anticipation of whose campaign, the surviving text of the "Dream of Emperor Maxen" was composed)
What is the significance of the discovery of Arthur's (and Gwenhwyfar's) bodies on Glastonbury Tor?
That Arthur was dead and would not be coming back to deliver the Welsh.
In what year was "Arthur's" body exhumed at Glastonbury Tor?
In 1191 AD
Define: Glastonbury Tor
A hill in the middle of a swamp that was associated with Avalon in the 11th C. and beyond. In the lady chapel on this hill was "found" the remains of King Arthur -- a death blow to the prophecy of his return to deliver the Welsh
What are the relevant dates around the finding of Arthur's tomb?
-1184: Glastonbury Tor destroyed in a fire
-1186: Henry II commissions its rebuilding (in splendid style)
-1189: Henry II dies
-1191: The "remains of Arthur" and possibly Gwenhwyfar exhumed at the Lady Chapel
-c.1220: Gerald of Wales describes the exhuming of Arthur and Gwenhwyfar's remains in his "Mirror of the Church"
Define: Rachel Bromwich
Thee editor of the Triads as we have them in the 3rd edition. Died before completion of the 4th edition.
In what time frame were the Triads first committed to writing
c. 11th C (though much of lore from 9th)
Define: Iola Morgannwg
Edward Williams -- a forger who introduced false texts into the pool of Triads etc. and messed up our understanding of medieval Welsh texts for a long time
Define: Nuadhu
A king figure from the Tuatha de Danann who loses his arm in battle against the Fomorians, but with Lugh's help gets silver arm and kingdom back and defeats the Fomorians.
Define: Tuatha de Danann
An order v. chaos tale in which appear the Dagda (with his cauldron that always satisfies), Lugh, and the Nodens figure Nuadhu. These figures appear frequently in the Celtic Arthurian tales we're studied this semester -- and particularly in the Perlesvaus
What is curious about "Culhwich and Olwen" with respect to its Celtic roots?
That it turns the Lugh-Nodens relationship on its head. In this text, it's the Arthurian Nodens helping the Culhwich Lugh.
From which historical figure is Bran derived (according to John Kuch)?
Brennos, the 3rd C. BCE figure who led the Celtic raid on Delphi
How does the second branch of the Mabonagi compare to the Arthurian poem "Spoils of the Otherworld," attributed to Taliesin?
In both tales heroes travel to an Otherworld island to retrieve a cauldron, and in both tales only seven individuals return, including the poet Taliesin.
Define: Diurnach the Irishman
The keeper of the cauldron in the "Culhwich and Olwen" tale
Define: Twrch Trwyth
The great boar (prince-turned-pig) from whose head Arthur and his men must retrieve a razor for the father of Olwen,as part of the requirement of the giant
With which elements is the deity Nodens associated?
With the sea and with war (so related to Mars)
Through which wounds are Nodens, the Grail/Fisher King, Arthur, and Bran related?
Grain/Fisher King = castration wound
Bran -- Upper thigh = castration wound
Nodens = silver arm
Arthur = metaphorical castration (Gwenhwyfar's infidelity)
How does Owain come to be associated with ravens?
Urien of Rheged, as he becomes drawn into the mythic tradition, is said to have married the Morgan LaFaye figure, Modron daughter of Avalach = the Morrighan = the death deity (flipside of the sovereignty goddess), who is associated with ravens, and their child is Owain
Define: codicology
The study of the assembly of the physical manuscript (binding, penmanship, etc.)
In how many texts is "The Dream of Rhonabwy" found, and which one(s)?
In only the Red Book of Hergest (c. 1400)
Who was the scribe who wrote "The Dream of Rhonabwy," who commissioned it, and why/for whom?
Hywel Vychian is the scribe who wrote "The Dream of Rhonabwy" at the behest of Hopcyn ap Thomas of Glenmorgan, who wrote it to commemorate (or anticipate) the victories of Llywellyn Fawr on his campaign 1215-1217.
Define: Brut
History + prognostication that characterizes the Welsh "history"
What is significant about the house of Heilyn Goch?
Its ugliness in the frame of the "Dream of Rhonabwy" is a metonym for the ugliness of Powys, torn apart by complications with the Welsh practice of partibility.
What is the name of the farmer who owned the hideous home in the "Dream of Rhonabwy"
Heilyn Goch
How does the frame tale function backwards in the "Dream of Rhonabwy"?
Signaled by a backward chronology in the dream, the frame tale functions in a way that comments upon the violent and ugly situation in Powys as an effect of the heroic ethos (honor + power @ any cost) of the Arthurian times.
What does the gwyllbwyll game represent in the "Dream of Rhonabwy"?
The Battle of Badon
What is the major motif of the "Dream of Rhonabwy," and how is it related to Celtic tradition?
Miscommunication/talking at cross-purposes characterizes Otherworld experiences in Celtic tradition.
Define: Addaon, son of Taliesin
The figure in the "Dream of Rhonabwy" who gives Arthur the Splash of Council to send him off to Badon (or Camlan?), and who receives the Blow of Council (by proxy for Arthur) from Elphin
Define: Blow of Council
A blow that does not result in offense/insult with intent of council
What Celtic motif is illustrated by Owain's ravens in the "Dream of Rhonabwy"?
That of women (mothers, lovers) helping men with birds
In what year did Chretien de Troyes write his Perlesvaus?
In 1191 (at the latest! This is the date that Philip of Flanders, who commissioned the piece, died)
Define: Rigaut de Barbezieux
A troubadour in whose work is the only mention of "Perlesvaus" before 1160.
In which texts are there manuscripts of the romance of Peredur?
-Peniarth 7 (end of 13th-beginning of 14th)
-White Book of Rydderch (c. 1300)
-Peniarth 14 (2nd edition,14th C.)
-Red Book of Hergest (c. 1400)
Which authors had the most significant influence over the Perlesvaus text that filtered down to us in the Welsh?
-Chretien de Troyes
-Robert de Boron
What is the importance of the hermit figure in the Christian romances?
A religious hermit whose role is to clarify/explain visions/dreams.experiences of the hero
Define: Witches of Caer Lloyw
Beings from the Peredur text that:
1) Give Peredut 1/3 of his training as a knight
2) Kill Peredur's first cousin (so that he must avenge the death upon them)
Define: Joseph of Arimathea
A Roman soldier who collected the blood of the crucified Christ in a chalice (=Grail), and who was the first Grail keeper (related to Perlesvaus through brother-in-law = Bron) on the Maternal side.
How do the nature and contents of the Grail change between the Peredur, Chretien, and Robert de Boron texts?
Peredur -- a platter with a severed head
Chretien -- a platter with communion wafers
Robert de Boron -- a chalice with the blood of Christ
Define: Cistercian monks
-Monks of white habit who were cenobitic (lived within the community)
-Teachings of these monks gave rise to the tradition that would become the first book of Y Seint Graal
Define: Benedictine monks
-Monks of black habit who were eremetic (lived in isolated communities)
-Oldest organized monastic form
-Teachings of these monks gave rise to the tradition that would become the second book of Y Seint Graal
In which text is the Y Seint Graal found?
In the Peniarth 11, 14th C.
Who commissioned the Y Seint Greal text?
Hopcyn ap Thomas (from Glamorgan), who also had commissioned "The Dream of Rhonabwy"
True or false: The head-hunting violence of the Celtic Arthurian romance is largely preserved in the French tellings
What was the name of the Fisher King when he was transferred over to the continent?
`How many Fisher/Grail King-Nodens-Bran figures are there in each of a) Chritien, b)Y Seint Graal, c) Peredur (not counting Arthur proper)?
a) 2 = Fisher King is the son of the Grail King
b) 4 = Father of Perlesvaus + 3 other manifestations
c) 1 with Fisher King = Grail King (somewhat confused)
With which deity is Peredur/Perlesvaus affiliated?
What are the three manifestations of Perlesvaus' father in the Y Seint Graal?
-King of the Death Castle
Define: Enygeus (Ingleis)
Mother of Perlesvaus, incestuously involved with her brother(s) in the Perlesvaus tale
Who killed Peles?
Which figure was killed by the Red Knight in Y Seint Graal, and how did this figure know Perlesvaus?
The son of his paternal uncle, Bren Brandalis = Perlesvaus' 1st cousin
Which figure did Arthur replace in the 20th triad?
Llew Llaw Gyffes = Llefelys = Lugh