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51 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthesis: Summary equation
CO2 + H20 --> C6 H12 O6
End result of photosynthesis?
Preformed by?
Glucose
Autotrophs (plants)
Respiration: Summary Equation
C6 H12 O6 + O2--> CO2 + H2O
end result of respiration?
preformed by?
create/recycle ATP
Auto's and Hetero's
What is cellular respiration ?
breaking apart of glucose
Tell me about the energy inside the glucose
the energy in glucose is waiting to break out, and that energy is used to put the P's back on the A (for ATP)
What is stage 1 of C.R.?
Where does it take place?
-Glycolysis
- Cytoplasm
- Anarobic (does not need O2)
What is stage 2 of C.R.?
Where does it take place?
- Krebs and Citric acid cycle
- Mitochondrian
- Aerobic (needs O2)
What is stage 3 of C.R.?
Where does it take place?
- Electron transport
- reuires O2 DIRECTLY
Describe stage 1 (think banana split)
Glycolisis -
1. C6 H12 06 enters cytoplasm of the cell

2. Special enzyme breaks C6 H12 O6 in half

3. Then is becomes 2 (C3 H6 O3) - pyruvic acid/ pyruvate

4. Some energy is released - net gain 2 ATP/2 high energy electron molecule s
what is 2 (C3 H6 O3) called ?
pyruvic acid/ pyruvate
Describe stage 2 (think breaking apart)
1. Pyruvic acids move into mitochondrion

2. They get broken apart in successive stages, until it all that's left is...
- CO2's (recycled in auto's, expelled as waste in hetero's)
- H's
- Electrons (goes to transport chain
Describe the electron transport chain?
1. Carries high energy electrons to the next stage

2. Needs 02 present
where do plant and animal cells get the majority of their enegy? (which stage?)
AEROBIC RESPIRATION IS THE METHOD BY WHICH PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS GET THE MAJORITY OF THEIR ENERGY.
what is glycolysis essentially?
4. GLYCOLYSIS IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH GLUCOSE IS CONVERTED TO PYRUVIC ACID, AND SOME OF ITS ENERGY IS RELEASED.
Electron transport chain
carries "high energy electrons" to the next stage
The 2 special electron carrier molecules
NAD and FAD
Describe the basic idea of electron transport chain
electrons from KC are picked up by special electron carrier molecules
ETC steps
1. series of special proteins (cytochromes) embedded in (mitochondria's interior membrane)

2. the electrons get passed from cytochrome to cytochrome (releasing energy as it goes)

3. when the electron arrives at last protein in ETC it gets picked up by O2 (O2's ONLY FUNCTION in organism)

4. Once the O2's pick up the electron it forms 2 (H20 ) with the H's from the krep cycle
How many ATPs are left after
glycolisis?
krebs cycle?
ETC?
2
2
32
Diffusion
tightly packed molecules in high concentrated areas --> escape to the lower concntrated areas

(also gices off energy)
Nutrient processing
A. Begins at the mouth - mechanical/ chemical digestion occurs
Teeth are for ...?
mechanical digestion (physially breaking lage food chunks into smaller chunks so that they can easily enter the d.s.

* DO NOT break polysaccharides into monosaccharides
Incissors are for
gripping/ ripping teeth
canines are for
gripping and puncturing (blood vessel, spinal chord) "food items"
bicuspids/ premolars are for
beginning the process of grinding/ pulverizing food item
molars are for
finishing the grinding and pulverization of the food item --> whihch is reduced to a semi liquid paste
carnassials are
(found in carnivorous animals) -- meant to cut through RAW meat
Saliva
mostly H20 but has an enzyme
describe the enzyme in saliva
amylase or pyralin which breaks down polysaccharides into monosaccharides
Electron transport chain
carries "high energy electrons" to the next stage
The 2 special electron carrier molecules
NAD and FAD
Describe the basic idea of electron transport chain
electrons from KC are picked up by special electron carrier molecules
ETC steps
1. series of special proteins (cytochromes) embedded in (mitochondria's interior membrane)

2. the electrons get passed from cytochrome to cytochrome (releasing energy as it goes)

3. when the electron arrives at last protein in ETC it gets picked up by O2 (O2's ONLY FUNCTION in organism)

4. Once the O2's pick up the electron it forms 2 (H20 ) with the H's from the krep cycle
How many ATPs are left after
glycolisis?
krebs cycle?
ETC?
2
2
32
Diffusion
tightly packed molecules in high concentrated areas --> escape to the lower concntrated areas

(also gices off energy)
Nutrient processing
A. Begins at the mouth - mechanical/ chemical digestion occurs
Teeth are for ...?
mechanical digestion (physially breaking lage food chunks into smaller chunks so that they can easily enter the d.s.

* DO NOT break polysaccharides into monosaccharides
Incissors are for
gripping/ ripping teeth
canines are for
gripping and puncturing (blood vessel, spinal chord) "food items"
bicuspids/ premolars are for
beginning the process of grinding/ pulverizing food item
molars are for
finishing the grinding and pulverization of the food item --> whihch is reduced to a semi liquid paste
carnassials are
(found in carnivorous animals) -- meant to cut through RAW meat
Saliva
mostly H20 but has an enzyme amylase (or pyralin)
describe the enzyme in saliva
amylase or pyralin which breaks down polysaccharides into monosaccharides
Esophagus
semi-liquid glob of food enters the esophagus ( a long tube connecting mouth to stomach)

- glob moves through this tube through peristalisis (series of contractions)
Stomach
A bag surrounded by muscles, creates fluid:
1. Gastic juice: mostly H20 w/ HCl
2. Enzyme Pepsin: Enzyme that breaks down protein into single amino acids

- Acid breaks down protein, liquifying the rest of the food (liquified into Chyme)
Small intestine
Chyme enters the small intestine (20 foot long tube)

- the chyme mixes w/ bile (produced by liver, stored in gall bladder) --> breaks down fats

- - entire interior of S.I. is covered w/ little projections (villi)

- more surface area = more absorption

- inside each villus is a BLOOD vessel

- nutrient molecules diffuse into the blood vessels for the CHYME

- ENTRANCE of nutrients into blood = absporption (ONLY in small intestine)
Polysaccharides are broken down in...

Proteins are broken down in...

Fats are broken down in...
- mouth

- pepsin

- small inestine by bile
Large intestin
not 100% of nutrients take in is absorbed
- leftover enter the large intestine
- much of H20 in the chyme is re-absorbed
- the remaining solid waste (feces) pases through the rectum
rectum
last little sections of large intestine, and the feces exits through the anus