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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When do plants make ATP?
Plants make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates
Who can make ATP and how is this done?
All organisms can make ATP, and this is done by breaking down carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
What does ATP stand for?
adenine triphosphate
The definition for anaerobic?
does not use oxygen
How do prokaryotes and protists stay alive in places where oxygen is not available?
they make ATP by fermentation and other anaerobic pathways.
Definition: Aerobic respiration
oxygen dependent extracting energy efficiently requires this..Oxygen-dependent pathway of ATP formation in which glucose is broken down to carbon dioxide and water in several steps, including glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transfer phosphorylation. Typical net yield: 36 ATP.
alcoholic fermentation
Anaerobic ATP-forming pathway. NADH transfers electrons to acetaldehyde, forming ethanol. Reactions start with pyruvate from glycolysis and
Enzyme or cofactor that can help neutralize free radicals, which may otherwise damage DNA and other molecules of life.
electron transfer phosphorylation
Last stage of aerobic respiration; electrons flow through mitochondrial electron transfer chains, to O2. The flow sets up an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP formation.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide. Nucleotide coenzyme; transfers electrons and unbound protons (H+) between reaction sites.
free radical
Highly reactive molecule with at least one unpaired electron.
Breakdown of glucose to two pyruvate molecules. First stage of aerobic respiration and fermentation.
Krebs cycle
The second stage of aerobic respiration (cyclic pathway)in which pyruvate is broken down to carbon dioxide and water. Two ATP form. Occurs only in mitochondria.
lactate fermentation
Anaerobic pathway of ATP formation. Pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to three-carbon lactate, and NAD+ is regenerated. Net energy yield: 2 ATP.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A nucleotide coenzyme; abbreviated NADH when carrying electrons and H+.
Three-carbon compound that forms as the end product of glycolysis
When do energy releasing pathways start to differ?
Once glycolysis is over.
What organelle does the aerobic pathway continue and end? What happens there?
Mitochondria. Oxygen accepts and removes electrons that drove reactions.
Of all energy releasing pathways, What energy releasing pathway gets the most ATP for each glucose molecule?
Aerobic respiration yeilds about 36 or more, whereas Anerobic respiration yields about a net of 2
Aerobic respiration chemical equation:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O

glucose and oxygen --> carbon dioxide and water
First stage of aerobic respiration is called? and What happens?
glycolysis. enzymes break down glucose into pyruvates
Second stage of aerobic respiration is called? and What happens?
Krebs cycle: enzymes break down pyruvate into CO2 + H2O which releases many electrons and Hydrogen atoms.
Third Stage of aerobic respiration? What happens?
-The big energy harvest happens here
- Oxygen accepts electrons and they combine with H to form H20
- the co-enzymes NAD+ and FAD accept the electrons and hydrogens from glucose breakdown, and since they now carry hydrogen and electrons, they are now referred to NADH and FADH2.
Fourth Stage of Aerobic Respiration? What happens?
-Electron transfer phosphorylation
- NADH and FADH2 give up electrons to the electron transfer chains,
- and H combine with electrons through the electron transfer chains and this sets p H to make ATP
Name the 6 carbon sugars in one molecule of glucose.
6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, 6 oxygen
What happens to a glucose molecule during glycolysis?
it is partly broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate (a 3 carbon compound)
Do the initial steps of glycolysis require energy? If so, how is it delivered?
Yes. It is delivered by ATP
How many ATP is needed to start glycolysis?
What is PGAL?
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
the direct transfer of a phosphate group, from the substrate of a reaction to some other molecule (such as ADP)
What is the net yield of glycolysis?
2 ATP and 2 NADH
Summarize glycolysis and its purpose.
Glycolysis converts the bond energy of glucose to bond energy of ATP - (ATP is a transportable form of energy)
What happens to electrons and hydrogen that are stripped from glucose?
it is picked up by NAD+ and will enter the next stage of reactions, along with 2 pyruvate molecules.
What is the end product of glycolysis?
2 pyruvate molecules
What is the first stage of aerobic respiration?
What happens in the second stage of aerobic respiration?
- Acetyl-CoA formation
- The Krebs Cycle
When and what happens with Acetyl-CoA?
Acetyl- CoA starts after glycolysis. At the start of this reaction, enzyme action strips the one carbon atom from each pyruvate and attaches it to Oxygen, forming CO2. Each 2 carbon fragment then combines with a coenzyme (designated A) and forms Acetyl-CoA.
What is Acetyl-CoA?
a type of co-factor that can get the Krebs cycle going.
How many NADH are yielded with the breakdown of each pyruvate?
When does NAD+ and FAD become NADH and FADH2?
when the two co-enzymes NAD+ and FAD are carrying electrons and hydrogen, they are in reduced form, and can be referred to NADH and FADH2.
Name two fermentation pathways? (anearobic)
Alcoholic fermentation & lactate fermentation
What is the process of alcoholic fermentation?
the three carbon backbone of the 2 pyruvate molecules that are formed in glycolysis are split, and this results in 2 molecules of acetaldehydes. The acetaldehydes that are formed accept electrons and hydrogen from NADH, and becomes a ethanol.
What causes drunk birds?
saccaromyces, which is the same that is used to produce alcohol in wine.
What is the process of lactate fermentation?
NADH gives up electrons and hydrogen to 2 pyruvate molecules that were resulted from glycolysis. This transfer converts each pyruvate to lactate.
What yeilds ATP for muscles that are partnered up with bones?
lactate fermentation, as well as aerobic respiration.
What do cells composed of "slow-twitch" muscle fibers support?
light, steady, prolonged activity. Slow twitch muscle cells make ATP only be the aerobic respiration pathway, so they have many mitochondria.
What are alternative energy sources in the body?
Fats and proteins.