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81 Cards in this Set

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Cytology
The study of cells.
What is a cell?
The basic structural and functional unit of a living organism.
Plasma Membrane
Thin barrier separating the cell's internal components from the extracellular materials and external enviroment.
What are the general characteristics of the Plasma Membrane?
The cell membrane is extremely thin. Visible only with the aid of an electron microscope. It is flexible and somewhat elastic.
What is the structure of the Plasma Membrane?`
Chemically the cell membrane is composed mainly of lipids and proteins, although it also contains a small quantity of carbohydrates. Its basic framework consists of a double layer of phospholipid molecules.
Cytoplasm
Refers to all cellular contents located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
Cytosol
The thick semifluid portion of the cytoplasm, which is intracellular fluid.
Organelles
Highly organized structures within a cell that perform specialized functions.
Nucleus
Largest structure within the cell; spherical organelle that contains genes which control cellular activities.
Nucleolus
Present within the nucleus and contains protein, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).
Chromatin
DNA and associated proteins loosely packed in a nondividing cell.
Chromosomes
During Cell division, DNA and certain proteins form into rod-shaped bodies called chromosomes that contain the genes responsible for heredity.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid, a nucleic acid found in a living cell; that makes up the chromosomes; carries the organism's hereditary information.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A system of membrane-enclosed channels. It provides a surface area for chemical reactions and products are transported from one portion of the cell to another.
Agranular ER
Has no ribosomes (smooth)
Granular ER
Studded with ribosomes (rough)
Ribosome
Tiny spheres that contain ribosomal RNA and protein, serve as the site for protein synthesis.
Golgi Complex
Processes, sorts, packages, and delivers lipids and proteins to plasma membrane, lysosomes, or secretory vesicles.
Mitochondria
Function in generating energy (ATP-Adenosine Triphosphate) into a form that is usable by various cell parts. For this reason, they are sometimes called the powerhouse of the cells.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
Lysosomes
Recycles old organelles and other substances that enter the cell. Contain 40 kinds of digestive enzymes capable of breaking down ta wide variety of molecules.
Centrosome
A cellular organelle consisting of two centrioles which contain DNA that controls self-replication.
Simple Diffusion
A passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration toward a region of lower concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion in which substances are moved through membranes from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration by carrier molecules.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane; water moves across from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
Filtration
Movement of material through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure, or gravity, or blood pressure.
Active Transport
Particular membrane proteins act as a ATP-Driven pumps to push certain ions and some smaller molecules across the membrane.
Bulk Transport
Provides ways of moving large particles across the membrane.
Endocytosis
A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.
Phagocytosis
or "cell eating"; pojections of cytoplasm engulfs a solid particle and brings it into the cell.
Pinocytosis
or "cell drinking"; the engulfed material is a tiny droplet of extracelluar fluid.
Exocytosis
Secretory vesicles inside the cell, fuse with plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid.
What are the two main types of Cell Divisions?`
Somatic Cell Division and Reproductive Cell Division.
Somatic Cell Division
A parent cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells. This process consists of a nuclear division called mitosis and a cytoplasmic division called cytokinesis.
What is the outcome of Somatic Cell Division?
The process ensures that each daughter cell has the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell. This kind of cell division replaces dead or injured cells and adds new ones for growth.
Reproductive Cell Division
The mechanism by which sperm and egg cells are produced. The process consists of a nuclear division called meiosis plus cytokinesis. These are the cells needed to form a new organism.
What is Tissue?
A group of similar cells that perform a specialized function.
What are the types of Tissue?
Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Elastic, Bone, Blood, Muscle Tissue, Nervous Tissue.
Epithelial Tissue
Covers body surfaces; forms glands; and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts.
What are the layers of Epithelial Tissue?
Simple layer, Stratified Layer, Pseudostratified Layer.
Simple Layer (Epithelial Tissue)
One layer of cells, specialized for absorption or filtration in an area of minimal wear. Lines the heart and blood vessels.
Stratified Layer.
Several stacks of cells, where there is a high degree of wear and tear. Your Skin.
Pseudostratified Layer
One layer of cells but not all cells reach the surface, those that do either secrete or have cilia that move mucous and foreign particles. They line the airway of most of the respiratory track.
What are the shapes of Epithelial Cells?
Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar, Transitional.
Squamous Epithelial Cells
Flattened, lines the mouth
Cuboidal Epithelial Cells
Cube shaped, lines glandular ducts. (secretes)
Columnar Epithelial Cells
Cells are taller than they are wide, lines the digestive tract. Absorbs and secretes.
Transitional Epithelial Cells
Readily changes shapes, lines the urinary bladder. Allows for stretching.
Glandular Epithelium
Function is to secrete. A gland may consist of one cell or a group of highly specialized cells that secrete substances.
Exocrine Glands
Secrete their products into ducts or directly onto a surface.
Endocrine Glands
Secrete their substances (hormones) directly into the bloodstream, and are ductless.
Connective Tissue
The most abundant type of tissue in our body, it protects, supports, binds, and insulates the body. Basic elements consist of cells, ground substance, and fibers.
What are the types of Connective Tissue?
Loose connective tissue, and dense fibrous connective tissue.
Loose Connective Tissue
Fibers are loosely woven, and many cells are present.
What are the types of Connective Tissue?
Areolar, Adipose, Reticular.
Areolar
Forms the subcutaneous layer of the skin.
Adipose
Specialized for the storage of fats, and reduces heat loss through the skin.
Reticular
Binds together smooth muscle tissue.
Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue
Contains more numerous, thicker, and denser fibers but considerably fewer cells then loose connective tissue.
What are the types of Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue?
Regular, ligament, tendon, aponeurosis, irregular, elastic, cartilage, hyaline, fibrocartilage.
Regular (dense fibrous connective tissue)
Provides strong attachments for various structures.
Ligament
Resistant to stretch, but flexible. Attaches bone to bone or organ to organ for prevention of undesired motion.
Tendon
Very resistant to stretch yet flexible. Attaches muscle to bone to produce motion during contraction.
Aponeurosis
A broad thin sheet of CT similar to a tendon in structure. Serves as a sheet like tendon for certain broad muscles to bone.
Irregular (dense fibrous connective tissue)
Provides strength. Located in the pericardium of the heart, and the periosteum of bone. Fascia (envelopes and separates muscles).
Elastic (dense fibrous connective tissue)
Allows stretching of various organs. Found in lung tissue, and ligaments between vertebrae.
Cartilage
Consists of a dense network of collagen and elastic fibers. Very resilient (ability to assume it's original shape after deformation). Non vascular, cells imbedded in gel like matrix.
Hyaline
Provides smooth surface for movements at joins. Found at the end of long bones. Most abundant cartilage in the body.
Fibrocartilage
Strongest of the 3 types of cartilage. Found at the pubic symphysis, and intervertebral disks.
Elastic (tissue)
Provides strength and elasticity and maintains the shape of certain structures. Found in the external ear.
Bone (tissue)
Cells imbedded in a calcium/phosphate matrix, forms the skeletal system.
What are the functions of the bones?
Protection for vital organs, support of soft tissue, motion/locomotion, houses blood forming tissue.
Blood (tissue)
The extracellular component is plasma and the cells are RBC's, WBC's and platelets. It carries nutrients and gases to and from the cells of the body.
What are the types of Muscle Tissue?
Striated muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle.
Striated Muscle
skeletal muscle, attaches to the skeleton; generally vluntary that allows for posture, locomotion, and primary heat source of the body.
Smooth Muscle
Forms thin sheets within the walls of hollow organs. Provides slight contractions for movement of materials , and is generally involuntary.
Cardiac Muscle
Within the walls of the heart, does not fatigue and generally involuntary. Provides the force to propel blood throughout the body.
Nervous Tissue
Senses changes that occur inside and outside the body, and reacts to the changes by causing muscles to contract and/or glands to secrete.
What makes up Nervous Tissue?
Neurons (nerve cells) and Neurological cells.
Neurons
Nerve cells. The basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system, and capable of carrying on electrical activity.
Neurological Cell
Accessory cells within nervous tissue that do not conduct or generate nerve impulses.