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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the basic strutural and functional unit of all living things; all living things are made up of 1+ cells; life processes are carried out by cells
the study of cells
Robert Hook
1665-1st person to observe and describe cell; used light microscope to observe cork cells
cork cells
dead plant cells
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
1675; observed living things in pond water; was unaware that he was looking at cells
powerful microscopes started to be developed
end of 1950's
most of celll organelles were discovered
1838; created the theory that all plants are made up of cells
1839; stated that the cells was the basic unit of structure in animals
Cell Theory #1
All living things are made up of 1+ cells
Cell Theory #2
cells are the basic unit of structure in living things and all cells carry out all life processes
Cell Theory #3
cells aise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their genetic material on to their daughter cells
disproved spontaneous generatioin
Eukaryotic cells
cells that have a membrane bound organelles such as a nucleus (normal cell)
10-100 micrometers
Ex: of Eukaryotic cells
protists, plants, fungi and animal cells
Prokaryotic cells
lack any internal membrance bound structures (like a nucleus)
DNA is found in an area of the cells call the nucleoid
make up the smallest single-celled organisms
1-10 micrometers
where the DNA is found in a Prokaryotic cell
Ex: of prokaryotic cells
bacteria and archaebacteria
cell structure
three main parts:
cell membrane (outside)
cytoplasm (middle)
nucleus (inside)
cell membrane (plasma membrane)
at boundary of every cell the cell membrance acts as a selections barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes to serice entire cell volume
C02, metabolic wastes
function of cell membrane
protects inside of cell
supports and gives cell shape
controls what moces into and out of cell
recongnizes and responds to chemical signals
what cell membrane helps to maintain
selectively permeable...meaning
some substances can pass through it freely
some substances cannot pass through it at all
some substancescan pass through it to some extent or only at certain times
selevtive nature is result of...
...chemical and electrical properties of membrane molecules; relates to structure of membrance
structure of cell membrane
a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids with various proteins attached or embedded in it (fluid mosaic model)
components of cell membrane
are amphipatic
have a hydrophlic hard and hydrophobic tail
the region between the nucleus and the cell membrance where organelles of the cell are locates
semi-fluid substance in cells
specialized internal structures in Eukaryotic cells
the "brain" of the cekk; contains all of the blueprints for all of the cells in the body; DNA is found in the nucleus, usually in the form of chrosomes
nuclear membrance (nuclear envelope)
a double membrance that alloows theings to enter and leave the nucleus through pores; selectively permeable
DNA; when the cell gets ready to divide, chromatin will shorten and thicken into chromosomes
what does cholesterol make the membrene do @ body temp.?
makes it fluid
located in the outer surface of the cell membrane; impt. for cell recongnition
small polysaccharides; act as cell markers that distinguish 1 cell from another
embedded with phospholipids
types of proteins
transport proteins
transport proteins
a protein that spans the membrane and provides a hydrophilic channel across membrance
ex of hydrophilic molecules
polar molecules
hydrophobic molecules
C02 and 02, achohol will travel through phospholipid layer instead
makes ribosomes (may be multiple nucleoli in a cell)
the organelle where proteins are made; leave the nucleus via the nuclear membrane with instructions on how to make proteins
aka make proteins
protein synthesis
where do the ribosomes get the instructions on how to nake proteins?
DNA in nucleus
holds genetic material
Endoplasmic Reticulum
"ER"; the site of cellular chemical reactions; serve as a system of channels for materials to be transported throughout the cell; highway system for cell
Rough ER
ribosomes attach and finish forming proteins
Smooth ER
productin and stroage of lipids and other molecules take place here
golgi body (golgi apparatus)
proteins are modified (fine tuned); the proteins are packaged and shipped off to where they are needed inside and outside of the cell; the post office of the cell
the digestive system of the cell; enzymes are found here; there is a membrane surrounding the lysosome; garbage disposal of cell
to destroy, to eat
ex: Lysol, the lysosome
why does a membrane surround the lysosome? what would happen if there was a hole in it>
membrane-->controls how much goes in and out
enzymes are able to enter and leave in a controlled manner and not just spew out
membrane-->very impt.
found in animal cells; play a role in cell division (mitosis)
membrane bound spaves that are temporary storage of materials;
fx: food, enzymes, waste, water
what is the difference between plant and animal cell vacuoles?
Plant-->large vacuole, holds large amt. of H20 or sap (sugar water that is used as a backup); when it is filled up, the cell is more rigid
animal-->small, multiple,hold mostly good, wastes and H20 (only sometimes)
a cell needs energy for allt he organelles to be able to function; the ability to do work
which 2 organelles provide energy and where are they found?
organelles that capture light and produce foor for a later time-->turn it into glucose; have a double membrane
a green pigment that traps light energy; in chloroplasts; most efficient but not only pigment
membrane bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell; power house of the cell; there is an outer and an inner membrane; glucose turned into ATP; turn sugar (glucose) into energy
inner membrane in mitochondria and function
cristae; energy storing molecules are stored here
multiple mitochondria
the # of the mitochondron may increase or decrease depending on the...
mitochondron are squished up like the small intestine because...
it inceases the surface area, thus making it more efficient
cells that have high # of mitochondron
brain, heart, sperm
cells that have low # of mitochondron
skin, fat
cell wall
rigid structure located outside of the cell membrance; found only in plant cells and some bacteria; not selectively will let anythingthat fits in
function of cell wall
support and protection
what the cell wall is made up of
cellulose (fibrous and porous)
structural polysaccharide
support structure withing the cytoplasm; made up of tiny rods and filaments
types of cytoskeletons
thin, holllow protein cylinders
thin, solid proteins fibers
microtubles maintain...
...cell shape and help organelles move within a cell (internal)
microfilaments help...
...uspport and move the cell (internal/external)
structures that help cells with locomotion and feeding; short hair-like projections that move in a wave-like motion
ex: of cilia
paramecuim/all respiratory tract
and ex:
same function as cilia; long projections that move in a whip-like motionsstructures that help cells with locomotion and feeding; sperm
some organisms are made up of only one cell and act independently; all life processes are carried out by this one cell
ex: of unicellular organisms
bacteria, protozoa, fungi, many algae
most organisms have more than one cell; they may have hundreds-->trillions
the simplest multicellular organization; an organism of a few to many cells that are attached to one another; show little or no differentiation among one another
ex: of colony
complex multicellular organisms
organelles-->cells-->tissues-->organs-->organ system-->organism
a group of cells that are structurally similar and perform the same function; make up an organ
types of tissues
epithelial tissue
connective tissue
muscle tissue
nervous tissue
epithelial tissue
covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
ex: epithelial tissue
skin, hair, nails, glandular
connective tissue
supports other body tissue and binds tissues and organs together
ex: connective tissue
bones, tendons, ligaments, scar tissue, cartilage
muscle tissue
specialized for contracting
ex: muscle tissue
cardiac (heart), smooth (organs), skeletal (muscle attached to bone)
nervous tissue
conducts impulses fast
ex: nervous tissue
liquid tissue; transports nutrients, wastes, 02 and C02
ex: blood
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
functions of epithelial tissues
protection (skin)
absorption (large intestine)
secretion (glands); salivary, liver, pancreas
hold bone-->bonw
hold muscle-->bone
more flexible
a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
ex: organ system
mouth (not really an organ), esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver
movement of materials through an organism
cellular transport
how things get into and leave cell; the movement of materials across teh cell membrance
passive transport
on energy is used for the movement of molecules acroses a membrane
ex: of passive transport
the tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out into available space; object goes from an area of high concentrations-->area of low concentration
Brownian movement
why the movement occurs
the molecules will tranvel from an area of what to what
high concentration-->low concentration
dynamic equilibrium
the molecules will travel from ann area of high concentration-->low concentration until dynamic equilibrium is reached; no energy required
concentration gradient
the difference in concentration between an area of high concentration and an area of low concentration
diffusion only occurs if there is a...
...concentration gradient
protein part of the cell
the part of the membrance that water diffuses through
the diffusion of only water across a selectively permeable membrane
organ system
order from smallest to largest
all of the organ systems work together simultaneously to keep the organism alive
maintaining homeostasis in a
regulating the control of H20 into and out of the cell
osmosis is a type of...
the homogeneous substance (liquid)
the substance something is dissolved in-->in the body, it is H200
the dissolved substance in the solvent
ex: of solute
NaCl, Potassium ion, 02, C02
isotonic solutions
a solution that has the same concentration of a dissolved substance as the living cell placed in it; the concentration of H20 molecules in the cell and the solution is the same
within an isotonic solution...3 things
cells maintain their normal shape
concentration gradient is 0
no net gain or loss of water in the cell
hypotonic solution
a solution that contains a lower concentration of dissolved molecules than that of the cell; the concentration of water molecules is greater in the solution than in the cell
in a hypotonic solution...3 things
cell will expand due to the H20 and possibly burst
animal cells don't like it
plant cells like it; the cell wall prevents it from popping
when a plant cell is full is means...
...that the cell is hydrated and the vacuole and cytoplasm have a lot of H20
plant cells have...
increased turgor
animals cells burst
dissolution or destruction of cells by lysins; the gradual recession of a disease
H20 pressure
osmoregulation by a paramecium done by a specail vacuole called...
...contractile vacuole
hypertonic solution
a solution that contains an increased # of dissolved molecules than that of the cell; the concentration of H20 molecules is less than that of the cell
ex: of hypertonic solution
salt water
cell shrinks
in an animal cell, what happens when it is placed in a hypertonic solution?
H20 exits cytoplasm and it shrivels up
in a plant cell, what happens when it is placed in a hypertonic solution?
cytoplasm shrinks due to loss of H20, there is now more air between cell wall and cell membrance, and it will become too wilted and die
facilitated diffusion
the passive transport of molecules across the cell membrane with the air of transport proteins (channel proteins); no energy is expended
what can go through during facilitated diffusion?
large molecules-->sugars, proteins
polar molecules (H20)
what are molecules driven by during facilitated diffusion?
concentration gradient
the channel proteins for water
gated channels
channel proteins; they need a specific stimulus, liek a neurotransmitter, before they allow the substance to pass through
Ex: of specific stimulus
active transport
movement of molecules across a membrane against a concentration gradient; requires ATP; molecules are going from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
how are molecules carried through the membrane?
via a protein (carrier proteins); physically carried
ex: of active transport
sodium potassium pump
sodium potassium pump
an active transport system that exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions through the membrane
an active transport process where a cell surrounds a larger particle and takes into the cell
the engulfing of a liquid
the engulfing of a solid
-endo, endo-
go in
ex: of phagcytosis; 2
white blood cells to bacteria, amoeba to food particle