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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cells without a true nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

Cells with a true nucleus and organelles.
Light microscope
Works by passing visible light through a specimen
Uses an electron beam to show surface of whole objects.
Gives a 3 dimensional impression.
Uses an electron beam to show the internal structure of the cell.
Specimen sliced up and placed in vacuum.
Simple Microscope
Microscope with one Lens.
Compound microscope
Microscope with two lenses.

Magnified image is remagnified.
Electron microscope
Type of microscope that uses electron beam guided by magnetic fields to magnify objects up to 1 000 000 times.
Anton van Leewnhoek
Dutch naturalist, given credit for being first to observe living cells.
Robert Hooke
English scientist, given credit for naming the "cell" from the "little boxes" he observed in cork whike using a microscope.
Matthias Schleiden
German botanist that stated all plants are made of cells.
Theodor Schwann
German zoologist that stated all anianls are made of cells.
Rudolf Virchow
Determined that cells only come from other cells.
His idea contrdicted the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter (spontaneous generation).
Cell Theory
(Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow)
A. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells.
B. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.
C. All cells come from cells that already exist.
All cells have what three things in common?
Cell membrane, cytoplasn, contain genetic material
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
to seperate inside of nucleus from the rest of the cell and is selectivley permeable
What is the function of ribosomes?
read RNA and physically join amino acids to create proteins
Where are ribosomes found?
2 places: floating in cytoplasm and attatched to endoplasmic reticulum
What are the two types of Endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough and smooth
What is the function of the smooth ER?
To assemble and modify lipids
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
prepares and packages proteins before being sent to their final destinations
What do lysomes contain?
contain enzymes which break down proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc
What is the fuction of vacuoles?
to store material like wter, salts, and protiens in cells
What are vesicles?
product of budding: small vacuoles, circular structures carrying cellular material
What is the structure of vacuoles in plants?
arge fluid-filled sacs that ake up almost the whole cell
What is the fuction of mitochondria?
to break down glucose into a form of material that can be used by the cell...ATP
What is the process of converting glucose into ATP called?
cellular rrespiration
What is the function of chloroplasts?
only in plant type cells, convert sunlight into energy through photosynthesis
What is chromatin?
DNA stored in Eukaryotes; linear DNA.

Prokayotic DNA is circular
What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes have no nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and have different DNA
Zacharias Jansen
Dutch maker of reading glasses who made first crude compound microscope.
A noliving particle consisting of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coat.
HIV, polio, t4, tobacco-mozaic
host cell
The cell in which a virus reproduces.
active virus
Attach -> Invade-> Copy -> Release

flu, measals, rabies, smallpox
latent virus
Attach & Invade -> inserts itself into host DNA -> Leaves hosts DNA -> copy -> release.
Cold sore, cancer
A solution of damaged virus particles injected in to hosts. Teaches immune system to recognize shape of virus or bacteria.
penicillin, streptomycin kill microorganism not viruses.
Can a viruses be treated with antibiotics?
No, viruses not alive.
Edward Jenner
English doctor who used cowpox virus to teach the body to fight smallpox.
common viral diseases
AIDS, chicken pox, common cold, flu, measals, mumps, polio, rabies, smallpox
We have vaccines for most of these diseases.
gene therapy
substituting correctly coded hereditary material for a cell's incorrect hereditary material.
sickel-cell anemia
genetic disease that alters the shape of red bllod cells. May be fixed through gene therapy.
Virus that cause the disease AIDS
Warring theory
belief that the delay of the onset of AIDS may result from equally matched competition between the changing HIV virus and the body's defense system.
Elboa virus
a virus that jumps between species (monkeys and humans) and demonstrates new and rare viruse are a future threat.