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28 Cards in this Set

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Cells
The basic units of structure and function in living things.
Microscope
An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
Cell Theory
Widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
Organelles
Tiny structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
Cell Wall
The rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
Cell membrane
Cell structure that controls what enters or leaves the cell.
Nucleus
The cell's control center, directs all of the cell's activities.
Mitochondria
Rod-shaped structurs that convert energy in food into energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
An organelle that is a passageway that carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
Ribosomes
Grain-like bodies that attach to some surfaces of ER and float in the cytoplsm that make proteins.
Golgi bodies
Receive proteins and other materials from the ER and packages and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
Chloroplasts
Organells that capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
Lysosomes
Small, round structurs containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.
Elements
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Compounds
Two or more elements chemically combined.
Carbohydrate
An energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Ex. Bread, starch, rice
Lipids
An energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Ex. Fats, oils, waxes
Proteins
Large organic moleculs made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfer.
Ex. meat, eggs, fish, nuts
Amino Acid
Small molecules that combine to make up the many different kinds of proteins.
Enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions in living things.
Nucleic acids
A very long organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all life funtions
DNA
A kind of nucleic acid that is the genetic materialthat carries information about an organism.
RNA
A kind of nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
Selectively Permeable
Means that some substances can pass through the membrane while others cannot.
Diffusion
The process by which molecules move from and area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water.
Passive transport
The movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane withougt using cellular energy.
Active Transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy.