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22 Cards in this Set

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What are the powerhouses of the cell?
Mitochondria
Why are the mitochondria called the powerhouses of the cell?
because most of the cell's energy is produced here
what organelle converts the chemical energy of glucose products into the chemical energy of ATP molecules?
Inside the mitochondria
In the process of converting chemical energy of glucose into chemical energy of ATP molecules, what happens?
mitochondria use up oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. Therefore, the process of producing ATP is called "cellular respiration"
Why is it called cellular respiration?
During conversion of chemical energy of glucose products into the chemical energy of ATP molecules, mitochondria use up oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.
The inner membrane of the mitochondria is folded to form little shelves called what and where do they project?
The cristae, project into the matrix
What is the matrix?
An inner space filled with a gel-like fluid
What does the matrix of a mitochondrion contain and what is their function?
enzymes for breaking down glucose products.
Where does ATP production then occur?
At the cristae
What are located in assembly-line fashion on the membranous shelves of the cristae?
protein complexes that aid in the conversion of energy
What hypothesis does the structure of a mitochondrion support?
They were originally prokaryotes engulfed by a cell.
What are the 3 pieces of evidence that supports the evolutionary theory of how the mitochondrion came to be?
They are bounded by a double membrane, as a prokaryote would be if taken in by endocytosis, they have their own genes, and they reproduce themselves, lastly, mitochondria contain their own ribosomes, which are structured the same way as those found in prokaryotes.
What are end cells, why are they importanat?
The differentiated daughter cells of stem cells. Much research has gone into learning how to control the differntiation of stem cells into desired end cells.
What are the 2 different types of stem cells?
Embryonic and adult stem cells.
What is parkinson's disease? What treatment is now possible for this?
A progressive motor control disorder, triggered by the death of certain neurons in the brain...stem cells in the lab to differentiate into neurons that produce dopamine.
How fast can a sperm swim? How fast does it reach the egg in a female?
20 cm/hour, they could reach the ovum in less than an hour
How is the Y chromosome different than the X chromosome?
The Y chromosome is very small and contains far fewer genes than the X chromosome.
Because the X chromosome has more genes than the Y chromosome, and females are XX, how does the body compensate for this extra dose of genetic material? What is it called?
By inactivating one of the X chromosomes in each cell of the female embryo. It's called a Barr body
What is a medical doctor who specializes in eye disease called?
opthalmologist
What is the vitreus humor?
The gel that fills the eyeball
What is the gel that fills the eyeball called?
vitreus humor
What is presumably true about antibodies and their effect on mitochondria?
They kill off/damage them.