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46 Cards in this Set

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Intrinsic / integral proteins
These proteins span the thickness of the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane.
Extrinsic / peripheral proteins
These proteins are only located on inner and outer surface. (They do not span the entire thickness of a plasma membrane.)
Glycoproteins
Proteins in the lipid bilayer with attached sugar groups
Passive diffusion
Solute moving down its concentration gradient (high to low concentration) requiring no carrier.
Facillitated diffusion
Diffusion with a carrier protein specific for the solute.
Endocytosis
Pseudopodia engulf large molecules.
Exocytosis
Vesicle membrane fuses with plasma membrane.
Phagocytosis
Endocytosis of foreign material, dead cells, old organelles.
Pinocytosis
Uptake of extracellular fluid.
Nucleus
Defines the eukaryotic cell.

Most prominent feature of most cells.

Considered the control center of the cell.

Surrounded by the nuclear envelope, a double membrane with the outer layer continuous with the ER.

Both membranes are pierced with holes or nuclear pore complexes (large protein complexes with a central channel).

Two main internal structures: chromatin and nucleoli.
What is Chromatin?
Ribbon-like twists of DNA molecules in the nucleus of the interphase.

Chromatin = equal parts DNA and protein.
Histone
Chromatin protein consists of two types: histones and nonhistone proteins

Histones are small, basic proteins rich in arginine and lysine.
What are the five basic histone proteins?
5 basic histone proteins: H1, H2a, H2b, H3 and H4
Where does phosphorylation occur in the Gogli Apparatus. (____ region, face)
Cis region (Cis face). Outer side.
Where does Glycosylation occur in the Gogli Apparatus?
Middle Regions
Where does product sorting occur in the Golgi Apparatus?
Trans region.
What is the plastid in charge of doing within the cell?
Photosynthesis, and the storing of products (like starch)
Name the forms of plastids, and their functions.
Chloroplasts (for photosynthesis - so the plant can make its own food [also give plants their green color]), amyloplasts (for starch storage), chromoplasts (for pigment synthesis and storage), leucoplasts (for monoterpene synthesis), and elaioplasts (for storing fat).
What are chloroplasts made of?
Lipid and Protein Membranes
The Central Vacuole is surrounded by a membrane called the ____________.
Tonoplast
What are the main functions of the vacuole (besides stability)?
Intracellular digestion - absorbing water, storing proteings, and storing ions.

Also releases waste products of metabolism, and toxic materials, and exports unwanted materials.
What key function does a vacuole play in a plant cell's stability?
The vacuoles are such a large part of the plant cell, they determine the cell size, and turgor pressure. (When well watered, the vacuoles within a plant cell collect the water. If the plant is not watered, the vacuoles reduce, causing the plant to wilt.)
What does the Cell Wall do for a Plant Cell?
Protects the cell, and maintains its shape - also directs the cell growth and overall architecture of the plant.
What is the Cell Wall made of?
Carbohydrates - mainly cellulose microfibrils.

Pectin (a polysaccharide) is a natural substance that thickens the cell wall.
Transcription and Translation
DNA template for RNA; same as parent but uses urasine instead of guanosine.

RNA to protien; a sequence of ribonucleotides to make a sequence of amino acids.
Where is chlorophyll found?
It is embedded in the thylakoid within chloroplasts.
What two organelles contain their own DNA, RNA, and ribosomes?
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts.
What organelle is the ER continous with?
The nucleus.
Some protiens are made in the RER and move through the SER then where do they go?
To the golgi for phosphoralysation and glycosation then packed into vesicles, some with special protiens to bond to specific membranes.
What is Clathrin?
Clathrin is the recognition protien involved in fusing new vesicles.
Acid Hydrolase is made by ribosomes and destin for what type of organelle.
Lysosomes. Acid Hydrolase is only activated in highly acidic environments and it can break any macromolecule into its separated monomer form.
What does the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum do?
Builds lipids.
Processes carbohydrates. Detoxifies chemicals that are toxic to the cell (alcohol and drugs).

Also responsible for the uptake and discharge of calcium to mediate some types of cellular action.
What is a ribosome?
A cell structure that uses genetic information that is in the RNA to bond a specific succession of amino acids into chains to form proteins.
What makes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum rough (as opposed to smooth)?
Rough ER contains ribosomes on its exterior which help function in the synthesis of proteins.
(Rough ER also produces new cell membranes.)
1. What is the membrane bilayer of the nucleus called?

2. What is the space in between the two layers called?
2. Nuclear envelope.

2. Perinuclear space.
Where is Chlorophyll located, what does it do, and what is this process called?
Chlorophyll is located inside of the thylakoid.

It converts solar energy into chemical energy (ATP).

This process is called photophosphorylation.
What organelle is responsible for digesting the cell once the cell's programmed "death" time comes.
Lysosome.
Where are lysosomes created and grown?
The Golgi Apparatus.
Where are peroxisomes created and grown?
The Endoplasmic Reticulum.
What is the outer membrane of the Mitochandria constructed of?
50% phospholipids and 50% enzymes.
What happens on the folds (cristae) of the inner membrane of the mitochandria?
Sugar is combined with oxygen and converted to ATP.
What is the plasma membrane of the cell primarily made up of?
Phospholipids and cholesterol.
What do the proteins in the lipid bilayer of the cell's membrane do?
Function as transporters, receptors, cell identity, enzymes, linkers/anchors.
Is diffusion a relatively fast or slow process?
Slow, very sow.
What are ion channels?
Ion channels are small proteins with a passageway in the membrane of organelles and cells.

Certain channels, Gate Channels, are blocked except when “opened” by chemical (phosphorylation) or electrical stimulus.
1. Does active transport require energy?

2. Does the solute move up or down the concentration gradient?
1. Yes, it requires ATP.

2. It moves up the concentration gradient (Low to High Concentration).