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36 Cards in this Set

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cell membrane
-surface boundary of cell
-selectively permeable membrane
-phospholipid billayer embedded with proteins
*Functions:isolation, sensitivity and regonition, structural support, control transport in and out of cell-
cytoplasm
material inside the cell between the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane
*Consists of cytosol, inclusions, organelles, cytoskeleton
nucleus
-largest organelle
-surrounded by nuclear envelope
-contains neoplasm, nucleoli, and chromatin
-stores genetic information to control synthesis fo 100,000 different proteins
-control center of cellular operations
cilia
long hairlike surface extension
-non motile cilia common in sensory organs
-motile cilia common in respiratory tract-move in waves to generate fluid currents
flagella
moltile cilia
-only functional one are the whip like tail of the male gamete
tight junctions
impermeable junction
prevent molecules from passing between adajcent cells in an epithelium
desmosomes
anchoring junctions
mechanical coupling between cells to hold them together
gap junctions
communication between cells
allows chemical messengers to rapidly pass between cells
solutions
homogenous mixtures of components
solute
substances present in lesser amounts
solvent
substance present in greatest amount
concentration
percent of solute in solution
concentration gradient
molecules move away from areas where they are in high concentration to areas where their concentration is lower
osmolarity
total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
tonicity
ability of a solution to cause a change in cell shape by altering internal water volume
diffusion
nonpolar and lipid soluble molecule pass directly throgh lipid bilayer
EX:fatty acids, steroids, alcohol, lipid soluble vitamins
osmosis
simple diffustion if water across a selectivle permeable membrane
-water moves in direction of highest solute concentration
isotonic
solutions with same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as those found in cell
EX:09% NaCl solution
hypertonic
solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes that inside the cell
EX:strong salt solution
cells shrink and die
hypotonic
solutions that contain fewer nonpenetrating solutes than inside cell
EX:distilled water
cells swell and burst
facilitated diffusion
passive transport of molecules across membrane by combining with carrier protein molecules in the cell membrane
-impt for molecules insoluble in lipids such as glucose and amino acids
active transport
requires ATP, specific enzymes and carrier proteins
-energy provided by hydrolysis fo ATP
-can transport against concentration gradient
EX:sodium potassium pump
vesicular transport
transport of large particles of fluid and macromolecules across plasma membrane in bubble like vesicles
-requires ATP
exocytosis
movement out of the cell
endocytosis
movement into the cell
phagocytosis
cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopods protrude and engulf cell debris and bacteria
EX:macrophages and leukocytes
pinocytosis
cytoplasmic extensions engulf droplets if extracellualr fluid containing dissolved molecules
-routine activity of cells
receptor-mediated endocytosis
mechanism for specific uptake of most maromolecules
-specific receptors bind to molecules and are internalized
EX:flu virus, AIDS, polio, hepatitus use process and enter cells and attack
cytosol
intracellular fluid in which cytoplasmic elements are suspended
inclusions
large storage particles of chemical substances
inclusions
large storage particles of chemical substances
organelles
metabolic machinery of cell
-membranous and nonmembranous
mitochondria
contain enzymes that synthesize ATP
sites of cellular respiration
have own DNA and RNA and capable of division
ER
network of interconneting tubes and channels formed by parallel membranes within cytosol
rough ER
embedded with ribosomes
portein synthesis and membrane factory
smooth ER
enzymes located here catalyze reactions involved in lipid metabolism
lipid and steroid metabolism
drug detoxification