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7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes
-genes and prots are co-linear=gene is simple triplet code for prot
-one chrom and one copy of that chrom
-large expanses of junk DNA interupt (introns) gene, <5% of human genome codes prots
-sexual reproduction-haploids to diploids
-mult linear chroms(yeast=16,humans=24)
-primary genome in nucleus(except mito and chloroplasts)
cell replication needs
1)centromere-mediate sgregation during cell division
2)telomere to guard against erosion of chromosome ends
3)Origin(s) of replication
-In S-phase (replication) copy each chromosome(maternal and patern.) to make two pairs of identical sister chromatids(mat and pat)
-sister chromatids are linked by centromere(typical 1000's of bp, one cent/chromosome, not always in middle)
-when mitosis happens kinetochores attach to centromeres to reg:alignment in middle, splitting, draging to poles of chromes
-mistake in segregation=aneuploid(wrong # of chromes), cause cancer
-protect ends of chromosomes
-made by telomerase at end w/o template to replace lost telomeres from lagging strand synth.
-form T-loops by looping back and bonding with itself to protect ends from degredation or repair
-aging-run out of telomeres=can't keep dividing
-cancer can force dividing-crisis point-killed or re-express telomerase
-nucleosome=DNA wrapped around octamer-two of each of four histones
-Histones-globular with tail positive charge interact w/ neg charge of phosphate backbone
30nM solenoid-nucleosomes held together by H1's
Euchromatin vs. heterochromatin
-loosely packed
-highly transcribed
-tightly packed
-All DNA before mitosis
-silent genes, repetitive DNA (e.g. centromeres)
chromatin remodeling
-regulation of chromatin state by adjusting nucleosome positioning
-requires multi-protein complex and E from ATP
-by covalent modification of histones-histone modifying enzymes (ex. neutralize pos charge on hist.)
-phosphorylation-important for chromosome condensation prior to cell division