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33 Cards in this Set

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Array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells arranged in order of size and shape
Karyotype
Karyotype
Condition in which a diploid cell has an extra chromosome.
Trisomy
Trisomy
A syndrome of congenital defects,especially mental retardation, resulting from an additional copy of chromosome21.
Down syndrome
Down syndrome
Accident in chromosome separation when one daughter cell receives both chromosomes and the other daughter cell receives none.
Nondisjunction
Nondisjunction
Procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn and tested of genetic abnormalities in a fetus.
Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis
Fetal-testing procedure in which pieces of the chorionic villi in a mother's uterus are removed and examined for genetic abnormalities.
Chorionic villi sampling
Chorionic villi sampling
Change in the DNA of a gene or chromosome.
Mutation
Mutation
Mutation in which a nucleotide or segment of DNA is lost.
Deletion
Deletion
Form of mutation in which a chromosome contains an extra copy of a segment of DNA.
Duplication
Duplication
Mutation in which a chromosome fragment rejoins its original chromosome with its nucleotides reversed.
Inversion
Inversion
Form of mutation caused by a chromosome fragment joining a nonhomologous chromosome during cell division.
Translocation
Translocation
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex.
Autosomes
Autosomes
Cellular structure on which genes are located.
Chromosome
Chromosome
One of a pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome during meiosis or mitosis.
Chromatid
Chromatid
The two chromatids are attached by a protein disk at a point.
Centromere
Centromere
Chromosomes that are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry.
Homologous chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes
Term used to indicate cell containing two homologues of each chromosome.
Diploid
Diploid
Haploid cell that participates in fertilization by fusing with another haploid cell.
Gamete
Gamete
Having only one set of chromosomes.
Haploid
Haploid
Fertilized egg cell
Zygote
Zygote
Chromosomes that differ between males and females.
Sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes
Form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring.
Binary fission
Binary fission
Repeating five-phase sequence of eukaryotic cell growth and division.
Cell cycle
Cell cycle
Process in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two unclei, each with the same number and kind of chromosome.
Mitosis
Mitosis
Division of the cytoplasm.
Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis
Period of growth between two mitotic or meiotic divisions of a eukaryotic cell.
Interphase
Interphase
Network of hollow protein cables that form between separated centrioles and move chromosomes apart.
Spindle fibers
Spindle fibers
Disk of protein on a chromosome's centromere to which microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis.
Kinetochore
Kinetochore
An asexual,resting, reproductive,haploid cell.
Spore
Spore
The exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis;source of genetic recombination.
Crossing over
Crossing over
In meiosis,term used to indicate the reduction of the number of chromomsomes(by half)when the cytoplasm divides.
Reduction division
Reduction division
Section of chromosome that codes for a protein or RNA molecule.
Gene
Gene
Rearrangement of genetic material.
Genetic recombination
Genetic recombination