Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is special about eukaryotic cells vs prokaryotic?
eukaryotic Contains
Nuclear envelope
membrane bound organelles
prokaryotic is only bacteria
How do nuclei in normal tissue appear vs cancerous?
normal is uniform in size and morphological features where cancerous are irregular
What is fluid in nucleus called?
What is unique about the nuclear envelope?
it is a double membrane of two phospholipid bilayer
What is the space between nuclear envelope?
perinuclear cisterna or perinuclear space
Explain the surface of nuclear envelope
it is covered with ribosomes and forms attachments with rough endoplasmic reticulum
what helps to stabilize the nuclear envelope?
fibrous lamina or nuclear lamina
What is the function of nuclear lamina?
regulates chromatin, stabilizes nuclear envelope
What does fibrous lamina do during mitosis?
breakdown the nuclear envelope through phosphorylation
What structures allow fluid flow in/out of the nucleus?
Nuclear Pore Complexes
What is a nuclear pore complex derived from?
Nucleoporins make the octagonal structure
GP210 anchors
How do large molecules enter through Nuclear Pores? what must they posess?
The molecule must have the nuclear localization signal, they bind to a chaperone protein that guides them to and NPC where GTP is used for active transport.
What is the nucleosome made of?
146 DNA base pairs wrapped around histones with 48 base pair linker regions
What is chromatin made of?
What is the structure of chromatin?
Solenoid (helix coil of wire)
What is unpacked chromatin called and how does it show up in a stain? why is it unpacked?
it is poorly colored
It is unpacked for transcription (active form)
What is packed chromatin called and how does it show up in a stain? why is it packed?
dark in stain
not actively transcribing it is well protected
What is the highest packed chromatin?
chromosomes ready for mit/meiosis
What structures are in the nucleolus?
pars amorpha
- pars fibrosa
- pars granulosa
What does the pars amorpha do?
contains Nuclear organizer DNA - sequences of bases that code for rRNA
What does pars fibrosa consist of?
newly synthesized primary transcripts of rRNA and associated proteins
what does pars granulosa contain?
maturing ribosomal subunits undergoing assembly to be exported to cytoplasm
What are the 4 main phases of the cell cycle
mitosis, interphase, Gap 0 (prep for mitosis), Gap terminal differentiated - nondividing cells
what are the phases of interphase and what occurs in each?
1. Gap 1
just RNA/protein synthesis no DNA
Grows to parental size
ongest phase
2. Synthesis
DNA synthesis and replication
3. Gap 2
damaged DNA repaired
create tubulin for spindle
Maturation promoting factor
what does Maturation promoting factor do?
disentegrate nuclear envelope
condense chromosomes
What are the steps of mitosis?
What happens in prophase?
chromatin coils form chromosomes
nucleoli disentegrate
mitotic spindle forms
what happens in metaphase?
nuclear envelope disentegration
chromosomes line up equator
chromosome splititng into sisters
spindles attach to centromeres
what happens in anaphase?
sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
what happens in telophase?
nucleoli and nuclear envelopes reappear as components of two separate nuclei
purse string constriction
cytokinesis - ends mitosis