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19 Cards in this Set

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What are two strategies for restoring blood flow after stroke?
thrombolysis (w/i 2 hours) and maintenance of the brain perfusion pressure
What are 4 ways to decrease energy demands of the brain after stroke to prevent more neuronal death?
hypothermia (not pratical), sedation, reduction of the production of action potentials, and inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission.
What are three mechanisms for blood brain barrier breakdown?
excitotoxicity (via glutamate), decrease in glucose thus decrease in ATP(loss of ion balance), and inflammation
The leader sequence on proteins destined for mitochondria has what kind of sequence?
basic amphipathic amino acids
How does complex II of the ETC (succinate dehydrogenase) accomplish ischemic preconditioning?
it is a K+ channel that allows influx of K+ that results in a short period of ischemic symptoms that can protect the heart from longer sustained ischemia later.
What ETC complexes are most important for making ROS?
Complex I and complex III
During ischemia, the primary trigger for cellular pathology is...?
ATP depletion
During ischemia, ATP depletion causes three events that facilitate amplification of cell damage. What are they?
increase of lactic acid, increase Calcium release into cell, and anoxic depolarization (excitotoxicity)
Why does glutamine remain in the synaptic cleft after ischemia thus causing neuronal excitotoxicity?
Glutamine is usually clered by an ATP dependent process, that is disrupted in ischemia due to decrease in ATP.
How does excitotoxicity cause cell injury?
It opens ion channels (specefically calcium) thus there is an influx of calcium, sodium, chloride and efflux of potassium. Many enzymes are stimulated and the membrane is damaged.
What is the big difference between apoptosis and necrosis?
Necrosis leads to "cell leaking" and inflammation while apoptosis leads to phagocytosis
Describe the extrinsic death pathway in apoptosis via Fas.
FasL causes trimerization of Fas, then three FADD's bind and activate caspase 8.
Describe the intrinsic death pathway in apoptosis.
Cytochrome C is released from the mitochondria and combines with APAF-1 (several of each combine) and thus activate caspase 9.
Cells in the ischemic core undergo this process... while the surrounding cells in the penumbra undergo this process...
necrosis in the core and apoptosis in the penumbra
Chronic inflammation and abscesses always lead to this...
fibrosis (scarring) which is loss of tissue function in that spot
chronic inflammation can occur in response to what (3 things)?
persistant infections, prolonged exposure to toxic agents, and autoimmune disease
What are the four morphological patterns of inflammation?
serous inflammation (blister), fibrinous inflammation, suppurative/purulent inflammation, and ulcers
what are ways to stimulate neurogenesis after stroke?
stem cells, cord blood, statins, NO donors, growth factors, and cytokines.
During angiogenesis, what event is absolutely important for stabilazation of the vasculature and for homeostasis?
extracellular matrix remodeling.