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17 Cards in this Set

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interphase
all periods of the cell cycle except for mitosis or meiosis
g1 phase
Gap 1 = period following mitosis/meiosis w/ no dna replication
g0 phase
secescent phase; arrested g1 phase ; cells that cease to divide go into this phase
S phase
synthetic phase; period of dna replication
g2 phase
period between dna replication completion and the onset of mitosis
cyclins
major cell cycle regulatory proteins, mRNA /protein levels oscillate throughout cell cycle ; cyclin degradation allows for cell cycle phases to progress
g1 cyclins ; C,D,E
C,D,E, expressed during G1 phase, controls progression of g1-s phase
g2 cyclins; A,B
A,B expressed during g2/m stages ; controls g2--> m progression
Cyclin dependent kinases
kinases that are activated by cyclin binding ; cdk levels dont change during cell cycle but ENZYMATIC activities DO CHANGE ; kinases PHOSPHORYLATE threonine/tyrosine residues
G1 CDK'S
Cdk2,4 ; activated by G1 cyclins
cdc2 (g2 CDK)
bound and activated by g2 cyclins
MPF - mitotic promoting factor
G2 CYCLIN/ cdc2 complexes induce mitosis via phosphorylation of NUCLEAR LAMINS and H1 HISTONES
Checkpoints
signals that decide to progress to different phases of the cell cycle
- function --> block cell cycle progression until dna damage c
tumor suppressors
p53/rb
- checkpoints are mediated by tumor suppressors --> inhibit cell cycle progression
Retinoblastoma (RB)
tmr suppressor
- blocks g1-->s progression until G1 CYCLIN/Cdk complexes reach critical level
- mid G1--> hyprphsphryltn causes release of E2F --> causes progrssion to s-phase
- e2f activtes e2f transcription as well as g1/cyclin cdk activation --> causes + feedback and faster initiation of s-phase
p53
-rspnds to dna damage
-blocks cc progression or induces apoptosis
- p53 actviates p21
- p21 inhibits ALL G1/G2 cyclin/cdk complexes --> thus blocking cc progression @ g1-S and g2-m transitions
if dna damage is too bad, what happens?
p53 initiations apoptosis via BAX