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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Information transmitted to successive generations
Organisms
Cells
Mendel- hereditary information
Pea Plant traits
each trait encoded by gene
Postulated existence of genes
but did not know the mechanism of transmission
Genome
all genes together
Miescher
extraced "nuclein" from nuclei obtained from white blood cells.
T or F
proteins carry genetic information?
F. Miescher miscalculated the amount of DNA in egg (90%) which led to the thought that proteins carry genetic info
What makes up a Gene?
Fidelity
Size
Information capacity
Griffith
Genetic transformation- something in the dead "s" cells converted the "r" cells into the pathogenic strain.

Smooth and rough bacteria
R strain transformed to pathogenic smooth strain
Which component was responsible for transforming?
DNA transformed R bacteria to S
Avery, McLeod and McCarty
DNA carries hereditary info
Studies viruses that infect bacteria
Bacteriophage
Hershey and Chase
Is DNA or protien transferred to bacteria?
DNA
DNA contains ____ but not ___.
Proteins contain ___ but not ___.
Phosphorus/sulfur.
sulfur/phosphorus
Chargaff’s rules
1. DNA from cells at same species have same percentage of each base.
2. DNA base composition varies among species.
3. number of A=T and G=C
4. Number of purines (AG)= number of pyrimidines (TC)
Tetranucleotide hypothesis
DNA made of only 4 Nucleotides present in equal amounts
A-adenosine
G-guanosine
C-cytidine
T-thymidine
Watson and Crick
model structure of DNA
H-bonding, PO4, backbone, helical structure.
Rosalind franklin
x-ray diffraction
-tilt angle of helix
-distance between bases (.34nm)
-turn of helix (10 bases/turn)
DNA structure
-Sugar-phosphate backbone
-5’-> 3’ orientation
-antiparallel
-base pairing
purine(AG)/pyrimidine(TUC)
separated strands serve as __ for synthesis of new complementary strands
templates
play roles in molecular interactions
minor groove and major groove
__ has implications for how replication and trascription occurs
Antiparallel orientation
types of DNA
B- most common
A
Z
How can DNA strands be separated?
denaturation
How are DNA strands held together?
weak H-bonds
Denaturation depends on __.
G-C content; as G-C content increases the melting temperature increases.
Hybridization
nucleic acid binding to complementary strand
Alternating __ conditions allows for pairing of nucleic acids only partially complementary
Hybridization
DNA-DNA hybridization
lowered stringency is useful for detecting related DNA sequences both within and across species
RNA-RNA hybridization
useful for detecting mRNA expression pattens in tissue
Genome organization in Prokaryotes
linear or circular DNA
Genome organization in Eukaryotes
nucles, mitochondrial (and Chloroplasts)
Genome size varies with ___
complexity
DNA structure
-Sugar-phosphate backbone
-5’-> 3’ orientation
-antiparallel
-base pairing
purine(AG)/pyrimidine(TUC)
separated strands serve as __ for synthesis of new complementary strands
templates
DNA structure
-Sugar-phosphate backbone
-5’-> 3’ orientation
-antiparallel
-base pairing
purine(AG)/pyrimidine(TUC)
separated strands serve as __ for synthesis of new complementary strands
templates
play roles in molecular interactions
minor groove and major groove
play roles in molecular interactions
minor groove and major groove
__ has implications for how replication and trascription occurs
Antiparallel orientation
__ has implications for how replication and trascription occurs
Antiparallel orientation
types of DNA
B- most common
A
Z
How can DNA strands be separated?
denaturation
types of DNA
B- most common
A
Z
How can DNA strands be separated?
denaturation
How are DNA strands held together?
weak H-bonds
How are DNA strands held together?
weak H-bonds
Denaturation depends on __.
G-C content; as G-C content increases the melting temperature increases.
Denaturation depends on __.
G-C content; as G-C content increases the melting temperature increases.
Hybridization
nucleic acid binding to complementary strand
Hybridization
nucleic acid binding to complementary strand
Alternating __ conditions allows for pairing of nucleic acids only partially complementary
Hybridization
Alternating __ conditions allows for pairing of nucleic acids only partially complementary
Hybridization
DNA-DNA hybridization
lowered stringency is useful for detecting related DNA sequences both within and across species
DNA-DNA hybridization
lowered stringency is useful for detecting related DNA sequences both within and across species
RNA-RNA hybridization
useful for detecting mRNA expression pattens in tissue
RNA-RNA hybridization
useful for detecting mRNA expression pattens in tissue
Genome organization in Prokaryotes
linear or circular DNA
Genome organization in Prokaryotes
linear or circular DNA
Genome organization in Eukaryotes
nucles, mitochondrial (and Chloroplasts)
Genome organization in Eukaryotes
nucles, mitochondrial (and Chloroplasts)
Genome size varies with ___
complexity
Genome size varies with ___
complexity
Why do we have so much DNA?
Repeated DNA sequences are presnt in multiple copies.
Tandemly repeated DNA
-10-15% of mammalian DNA
-short repeated units repeated many times
-function not clear
-may serve protective function
Interspersed repeated DNA
-25-40% of mammalian genome
-scattered in genome
-units of 100s to 1000s bp long
-transposons related to interspersed DNA repeats
Bacterial circular DNA
bacterial genome is contained in a single circular "Chromosome" including DNA and bound proteins
Bacterial chromosome is localized to the __.
Nuceloid
Nucleoid
-non-membrane bounded region
-DNA is held separate from rest of cell
-DNA folded into loops anchored in nucleoid; held in place by RNA and proteins.
positive supercoil
in direction of helix
negative supercoil
against the direction of the helix
bacterial circular DNA is supercoiled to...
increase the accessibility to proteins involved in replication or transcription
__ catalyzes relaxation or supercoiling
Topoisomerase
Bacteria also contain __.
Plasmids
Pasmids
-small circular DNA; -supercoiled and contain few genes
3 types of plasmids
1. F-factor (episome): conjunction (fertility)
2. R-factor: resistance to antibiotics
3. Col ractor: colicin secretion (toxic to bacteria lacking the col factor)
DNA bound to proteins called __
chromatin fibers
Chromatin
condenses into chromosomes
an example of a purine is...
guanine or adenine
DNA isolated from Aspergillis has an adenine content of 25%. What is the %G-C?
50%
What phase of the cell cycle is associated with the doubling of the amount of DNA in the cell?
S phase
cyclins modulate the progression of cells though the cell cycle by activating ___ that are critical regulatores of cell division
protein kinases
what phase of the cell cycle varies most in duration in various cell types
G1
___ is the enxyme involved in proofreading during DNA replication
DNA polymerase
ensure folding
chaperones
DNA replication of linear chromosomes has multiple sites known as
replicons
__ synthesis is a damage-tolerant mechanism that allows synthesis of a new DNA strand from a damaged template
translesion
the coding regions of a gene
exons
TFIID recognizes and binds the ___ box in the DNA
TATA
The first AA incorporated in bacterial protein synthesis is ___
N-formylmethionine
degrades mRNAs that contain premature stops
Nonsense mediated decay