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31 Cards in this Set

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where does the citric acid cycle take place?
inside the mitochondrial matrix
the matrix contains enzymes for _________, __________ for the citric acid cycle, _________ DNA, and mitochondrial ribosomes and tRNA
the matrix contains enzymes for oxidation of pyruvate, fatty acids for the citric acid cycle, mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial ribosomes and tRNA
the inner membrane contains proteins/enzymes with which 3 functions?
the inner membrane contains proteins for the oxidation reactions of the ETC, ATP synthase, and transport proteins
the outer membrane contains enzymes for __________ and is permeable to ___________
the outer membrane contains enzymes for lipid synthesis and is permeable to a lot of molecules
the intermembrane space has enzymes that use the ATP passing out of the matrix for ___________
the intermembrane space has enzymes that use the ATP passing out of the matrix to phosphorylate nucleotides
ATPases can make _______ ATP/minute
118 ATP per minute
what can F type ATPase do?
convert ATP back to ADP to maintain H+ gradient
what class of organelles does the chloroplast belong to?
plastids
what is the common origin of the plastids?
protoplastids
where can we find protoplastids?
in young plants
what are the possible fates of protoplastids?
exposed to light = chloroplast, no light = leucoplasts in root to store starch
what is a leucoplast?
protoplastid not exposed to light used for storage in root
what else can we use protoplastids for besides photosynthesis or storage?
synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids
purpose of the vacuole?
80-90% of space of cell, maintains turgor (osmotic pressure)
does the chloroplast have an inner membrane?
yes
T or F: the chloroplast can also store starch?
TRUE
what is a granum?
a stack of thylakoids
what are grana?
clusters of stacks of thylakoids
what happens in the thylakoid?
ATP synthesis, light reactions
the compartments formed by the folding of the inner membrane of the mitochondria are called _________
cristae
the inner membrane of the mitochondria is ____________ (folded/unfolded).
folded
the inner membrane of the chloroplast is __________ (folded/unfolded)
unfolded
in plants, nucleotides & amino acids are synthesized in the ___________ (cell type). In animals they are produced in the __________ of cells (cell area).
plastid cells in plants, in the cytosol of animal cells
ATP synthase is located in the ______ of the mitochondria and makes ATP in the _________
in the inner membrane, makes ATP in the matrix
the __________ is a general term for the process where an electron moves along a series of electron carriers from higher to lower energy states, eventually to a final acceptor molecule
electron transport chain
in both the mitochondria & chloroplast, how is DNA stored?
in nucleoid form without histones
the photosystem is composed of what componenets?
antenna complex and photochemical reaction center
what are the features of the mitochondrial genome?
dense gene packing, relaxed codon usage, and a variant genetic code
what is variegation?
when plants inherit the chloroplast from both parents
do mitochondria make or import lipids? Do chloroplasts make or import lipids?
mitochondria import them, chloroplasts make them
mitochondria do what to the lipids they import?
convert them to cardiolipins