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88 Cards in this Set

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List three types of mucosa in oral cavity? and their location.
Lining (ventral tongue, buccal cavity, vestibule, soft palate)
Masticatory (gingiva and hard palate)
Specialized (dorsum of tongue)
What kind of epithelium is found in each mucosa of oral cavity?
Lining - Non-keratinized strat. squamous

Masticatory - Keratinized start. squamous

Specialized - Keratinized start squam
Which two kinds of cells are found in taste buds?
Generative cells (basal) and Sensory cells (life span is about 10 days)
Which layers of GI tube usually have vessels and lymphoid tissues?
Lamina propria of mucosa AND
Submucosa
Name the specialized cells associated with lymphoid tissue. What is their function?
M cells
Antigen presenting cells
which layer of muscle contracts to empty mucosal glands?
Muscularis interna (which is smooth muscle)
Describe the regional differences (between pits and glands) of different regions of stomach.
Cardia - Short pits and equal glands
Fundus and body - Glands longer than pits
Pyloris - Pits longer than glands
Describe the secretion from surface mucosal cells of stomach?
Neutral insoluble mucus.
Describe the secretion from mucous neck cells.
Acidic soluble mucus. Tends to flush out the glands.
Parietal cell secretes...

Chief cell secretes...
HCL and Intrinsic factor

Pepsinogen and Rennin
Which cells are located at thev ery base of crypts of small intestine?

What does it secrete?
Paneth cells.

Typical zymogen secreting cell-- secretes antimicrobial alpha-defensins (lysozyme and poly-cation).
How is sperm membrane stabilized?
Glycoprotein inhibitors of acrosomal membrane (from seminal vesicles and epididymis)

CHLS (must be removed for acrosomal rxn)
Capacitation steps
(1) reduction of CHLS
(2) Mannose receptor move to the plasma membrane and cluster in equatorial segment
(3) Binding to mannose residues on zona pellucida
(4) Initiate acrosomal rxn.
Where are mannose receptors located on the sperm?
In the equatorial segment
Acrosomal Rxn
Fusion of acrosomal and the plasma membrane.

Digestive enzymes are released.
Fertilization
Post acrosomal membrane binding to oocyte.

The sperm nucleus enters the cytoplasm of oocyte.
Cortical reaction
Change in the structure of zona pellucida to prevent polyspermy
Which rxn prevents polyspermy?
Cortical rxn.
Examples of acrosomal enzymes
Acrosin and Hyalurindase
Seminal vesicle secretes..
Fructose (for energy)
Flavins (forensic value)
Seminin (loosen up coagulum)
Glycoproteins
Prostaglandins (for peristaltic contractions)
Prostate secretes...
Acid phosphatases, Fibrinolysin, Citrate, Hydrolases
Sperm binds to oocyte at _____ membrane.

Sperm binds to zona pellucida at ____ membrane.
Post-acrosomal

Equatorial (via mannose receptors)
List what happens in spermiogenesis (as spermatid changes to sperm).
Large lysosome (acrosome) formed.
Nuclues condenses.
Cytoplasm and Centrioles move to cell pole opposite of acrosome.
Distal centriol becomes template for flaggelar axoneme
Sperm divisions
Sperm head

Sperm middle piece. - Axoneme, Surrounded by 9 dense bodies, surrounded by mito

Sperm principle piece - Axoneme, surrounded by 7 dense bodies, surrounded by ribs (AND has dorsal and ventral columns)

Tail end - About 20 or so microtubules
Sertoli cells secrete ___ rich fluid in tubules.
K
Sertoli cells secrete... (6 things)
(1) Androgen BP
(2) K rich fluid
(3) Inhibin
(4) Activin
(5) LHRH
(6) Transferring (transfers iron from blood to adlumenal compartments)
List two steriod secreting cells and their diagnostic features.
Leydig cells and Theca Interna cells.

SER, Mitochondria with tubular cristae, few cytoplasmic lipid droplets.
Orientation of muscularis externa?
Inner - Circular
Outer - Longitudinal
Glands associated with following tissues...

Circumvillate Papillae
Duodenum Submucosa
Olfactory Epithelium
Urethra
Circumvillate Papillae - Von Eber's
Duodenum Submucosa - Brunner's
Olfactory Epithelium - Bowman's
Urethra - Glands of Littre
What is secreted by Brunner's gland?
Mucus, Epithelial growth factor and Bicarbonate
What is found in the glycocalyx of small intestine?
Digestive enzymes and transporters. (Proteases, glycosidases and lipases)
Why is the apical membrane of SI clear?
To resynthesize Lipids. It has SER in this region.
What is the goblet cell arragements in digestive tract?
They don't show up till Small intestine.

And after that number of goblet cells increase as we move to distal end.
What are some of the products of exocrine digestive glands?
Amylase (digest carbohydrates)
Lysozyme
Lactoferrin
J Protein
Kallikrien (enzyme involved in Bradykinin production)
Which enzyme is inolved in Bradykinin production?
Kallikrein
What is absorbed in the large intestine?
Vitamins and H2O and Na reabsorption
Which veins drain blood from central vein?
Sublobular veins. (Vessels in the portal triad are called INTERLOBULAR)
Liver is covered by...(name the capsule)
Glisson's
What defines portal acinus?

Zone...
Most sensitive to ischemia
Least sensitive to toxins
First to show changes after bile duct occlusion...
Central vein and Portal triad.

Zone1 - Highly oxygenated
Zone3 - Poorly oxygenated

Zone3, Zone3, Zone1
How does Jaundice develop?
Bile leaking into sinusoids (of plasma).

Bile ducts are surrounded by tight junctions but pathology in this region makes them leaky and bile leaks out.
What are the four types of cells found in liver?
Ito cell
Hepatocyte
Endothelial cell
Kupfer cells
Which liver cells contribute to sinusoid lining?

Which are contractile?

Which are binucleate, polypoid?
Kupfer cells and Endothelial cells

Ito cells (contribute to portal hypertension)

Hepatocytes
List four functions of Ito cells in liver?
(1) Fat and Vitamin A storage (2) Fibrogenesis - Collagen I and III (3) Contractile (cause hypertension) (4) Synthesize retinol binding protein
Where is Bile acid and bilirubin conjugated?
On the SER of Hepatocytes.
Which cells secrete CCK and what is its function?
I cells in the Duodenum. Cause constriction of Gall Bladder (emptying) and prevent gastric emptying.
Histological characteristics of Gall bladder?
(1) Highly folded mucosa (much like oviduct)
(2) Has microvilli (oviduct has cilia)
(3) No goblet cells
(4) NO muscularis mucosae
List the three types of cells found in pancreas?
Acinar (zymogen secreting)
Centroacinar (Bicarbonate rich fluid)
Islet cells (endocrine function)
Exocrine secretions of Pancrease are stimulated by..
CCK (enzyme rich) and Secretin (Bicarbonate rich fluid)
Constitutive secreting cells

Regulated Secretions
COPII - Hepatocyte Endocrine function

Clathrin - Acinar cells
List some pancreatic enzymes...

Pancreatic Proenzymes...
Enzymes...
Amylase, Lipases, RNase and DNase

Proenzymes...
Trypsinogen, Cabcoxypeptidases, Chymotrypsin, Elastase
Product of following liver cells and their function...

Delta cells
G cells
PP cells
Delta - Somatostatin - Inhibit secretions and smooth muscle contractions.

G - Gastrin - Stimulate HCL release from Parietal cells

PP cells - Inhibit exocrine secretion of pancreas (inhibit acinar cells)
Liver sinusoids are surrounded which kinds of cells..
Endothelial cells

Sinosoidal capillaries without basal lamina.
Compare Type I and Type II diabetes..
Ketoacidosis - Only in type I
Ab against Beta islet cells - Only in type 1
Pt reacts to insulin - Type 1
Insulin receptor defective - Type II
A type II diabetes patient's Beta islet cells are surrounded by this material..
Amylin
Steps in synthesis of melatonin..

Which two cells are found in pineal gland?
Serotonin --> N-Acetyl Serotonin --> Melatonin

Pinealocyte and Glial cells (stromal cells)
3 functions of melatonin..
Inhibits onset of puberty
Inhibits onset of reproductive activity
Regulates secretion of ant and post pituitary hormones
Corpora Aranacea

Corpora Amylecia
Large calcium rich granules (brain sand) in pineal gland

Ca sand in prostate
Which enzyme is only found in the pineal gland...
HIOMT - Hydroxyindole O Methly Transferase
Two post. pit hormones...synthesized in HT
Oxytocin - PVN

Vasopressin (ADH)- SCN
Basophils AND Acidophil cells in Ant pit.
Basophils - Gonadotrophes, Corticotrophs, Thyrotrophs

Acidophils - Sommatomammotrophs
Four products of alternative splicing of POMC
MALE -

MSH, ACTH, LPH, Endorphin
Functional cell type of intermediate lobe...
Malanotropes (MSH production)

Also has cotricotropes (ACTH production)
Addison's disease

Cushin's disease
Addisons - Increased ACTH, Decreased Cortisol (Adrenal insufficiency) - Hyperpigmentation

Cushin's - Increase ACTH and Cortisol, Skin changes, Weight gain and hypertension
Herring body..
Has dense core vesicles with neuropeptides in it. They are secreted by Ca mediated exocytosis (at the presynaptic terminal)
List some brain gut peptides...
SVIGS - Secretin, VIP, Insulin, Gastrin, Somatostatin,
Difference between releasing hormone and trophic hormone..
Releasing hormone - works on ant pituitary

Trophic hormone - works on target cells (released from pituitary)
Neurophysin
Carrier protein as part of the pro-hormone that is released by hypothalamus into post pituitary
Which protein is found in Pituicytes?
GFAP- Glial fibrillary acid protein
Developmental origin of thyroid gland..

Origin of PTH
Midline diverticulum of the foregut and Pouch V

Inferior - Pouch III
Superior - Pouch IV
Thyroid Peroxidase is required for...
Iodine Activation, Iodination and Coupling
Thyroid Hormone receptors
Alpha1, Alpha2, Beta1, Beta2

Alpha2 - Doesn't respond to T3
Beta2 - Specifically in brain, developing ear, ant pituitary (part of feedback system)
Actions of PTH related peptides...
Cartilage and bone devlopment, Mammary development and lactation, Placental transfer of Ca
Which are the functional cells of adrenal medulla?

Which enzyme is specific to these cells and converts NE to Epi?
Chromaffin cells

PNMT - Phenylalaning N Methyltransferase
Structyre of parietal cell
Mitochondria.
Prominent canaliculi with microvilli -
Strongly eosinophilic cytoplasm.
Pheochromocytoma
Hyperplastic chromaffin cels

Results in oxidation of catecholamines by chromium salts
Addison's disease
Adrenal Insufficiency (Decreased Cortisol and Aldosterone)

Hence, Increased ACTH (Hyperpigmentation of skin)
Cushin's disease..
Increased ACTH secretion leading to increased Cortisol release.
Which two enzymes are used to discharge oocyte from ovary?
Plasminogen and Prostaglandin
Which two cell types are found in corpeus luteum?

What do they secrete?
Granulosa Lutein and Theca Lutein.

Progesterone (hormone of CL)
What happens to Cl during pregnancy?
(1) Trophoblast produce hCG and (2) this causes hypertrophy of CL (3) Progesterone levels increase (4) Relaxin secreted

CL degenrates after 6th month.
Corpus luteum is replaced by...
corpus albicans
Describe phase changes in Oviduct...
Follicular phase...More ciliated cells than non-ciliated cells. cilia beating rate increased.

Ovulation - Fimbriae close to Oocyte. Cilia beating and peristaltic contractions to transport egg.

Leuteinizing - Increased secretory over ciliary cells.
List the two layers of stroma of endomytrium.
Stratum Functionalis (supplies by spiral arteries) - Sloughed off

Stratum Basalis (supplied by straight arteries)
Describe endometrial changes during menstrual phase...
Days 1 to 4 - Functional layer sheds.
Endometrial changes during follicular phase
Proliferative phase...
Epithelium restored.
Glands are back - straight
Stroma restored due to mitotic activity
Which hormone regulates proliferative phase?

Secretory phase

Ischemic phase
Estrogen

Progesterone

Lack of Progesterone and Estrogen
Changes as part of secretory phase...
Glands develop.
Spiral arteries develop.
Endometrial stroma thickens (due to edema)
How does vaginal epithelium change during follicular phase?
Estrogen increases glycogen levels in vaginal epithelium during follicular phase.