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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Provide region/tissue where following glands can be found...

Single cell
Secretory epithelial sheet
Intraepithelial glands
Alveolar/acinar glands
Tubular glands
Tubulo-acinar glands
Single cell - Goblet cell
Secretory epithelial sheet - Uterus, stomach
Intraepithelial glands - Larynx, Upper resp. tract
Alveolar/acinar glands - Glands of oral mucosa, pancreas, salivary glands
Tubular glands - Sweat glands
Tubulo-acinar glands - Salivary glands, pancreas
Give an example of simple and compound duct?
Simple - Sweat gland(tubular gland)

Compound - Most glands, pancreas, salivary glands, submucosal glands
List three medhanism of secretion.
Holocrine (entire cell fills and ruptures - sebaceous gland)

Apocrine - (apical portion of cell is lost - lipid secretion of mammary gland)

Merocrine (only the secretory product is release - protein secretion of mammary gland)
Define holocrine secretion.
Entire cell fills with product and ruptures.

Entire cell is lost.

Example - Sebaceous
Define apocrine secretion.
Apical portion of cytoplasm is lost with secretory product.

Lipid secretion by mammary gland.
Define merocrine secretion.
Only the secretory product is released.

Most glands. Protein release by mammary gland.
List three characteristics of muscous gland secretions..
(1) viscous
(2) polysacharide-glycoprotein rich
(3) Acidic or neutral in nature
What is the mechanism of secretion for lipids and proteins in the mammary gland?
Lipid secretion - via Apocrine

Protein secretion - via Merocrine
What kind of collagen fibers are found....

in CT septa and
within lobes
CT septa - Collagen I

Within septa - Collagen I and III
List two types of intralobular ducts.
Intercalated and Striated
Which kind of epithelium is found on the intralobular ducts?

And interlobular ducts?
Intercalated duct - Simple cuboidal (unique to salivary and pancreas gland)

Striated - Simple columnar (unique to salivary gland)

Interlobular - Simple or stratified columnar
List functions of striated duct.
Stritated duct (in salivary gland) have many Na/K pumps.

Maintain Na and K ratio in saliva by removing Na.
Centroacinar cell
First cell of intercalated duct.

Generated by acinar cells.
List three characteristics of serous alveolar cell of salivary gland.
(1) Polarized cell (basal basophilia - apical acidophilia)

(2) Rounded, basal nuclei

(3) Abundant RER
What are seroud demilunes?
Serous cells on the outside of mucous cells. They secrete their product canaliculi between the mucous cells where it mixes with mucous product of acinar cells.
Describe synthesis and release of IgA in the salivary gland.
(1) Plasma cells product IgA and J proteins.
(2) J proteins form IgA dimer.
(3) IgA dimer binds to Fc receptors (secretory components on the basal surface of acinar cells)
(4) IgA dimer is endocytosed.
(5) IgA dimer is released into the duct
(6) Piece of secretory component stays with IgA dimer to prevent it from being digested.
List 5 characteristics of myoepithelial cells.
(1) Wraps around secretory acini
(2) Actin and myosin rich (contracile ability)
(3) Inntervated
(4) Coupled via gap junctions
(5) When innervated, compress acini and help expel secretory product into the ducts.
List the four different types of cells that are found within olfactory epithelium.
(1) Pseudostratified columnar cells
(2) Bipolar neuron cells
(3) Sustentacular (supporting) cells
(4) Basal cells
What is unique about the neurons in the olfactory epithelium?
(1) Unmyelinated
(2) Directly exposed to toxins
(3) Able to regenerate (via basal cells)
(4) Has an apical dedrite that expands into a bulb containing 12 or more modified immobile cilia.
(5) Dendrites have chemoreceptors
Which cells (of olfactory epithelium) are considered progenitor cells for sustentacular cells?
Duct cells of the bowman's serous gland.
Respiratory tract is designed to handle which three problems...
(1) cleaning problem
(2) patency problem (keep the airway open)
(3) Provide large surface area for gas exchange
Which cells secrete serotonin in the resp. epithelium?

What is serotonin's function?
Basal cells type II (ones that are innervated) and neuroepithelial bodies.

Serotonin constricts smooth muscle in vessels and bronchi.
Which cell types are found in respiratory epithelium?
(1) Pseudostrat. columnar epithelium (ciliated)
(2) Neuroepithelial bodies
(3) Basal cells I
(4) Basal cells II
(5) Mucous secreting goblet cells
Which cells are responsible for controlling ciliary beat in respiratory epithelium?
Basal cells type II (these cells also secrete serotonin and are innervated)
Clara cells
Also known as bronchiolar cells.

Secrete a mixture of glycoprotein, lipids and cholesterol.

Metabolize xenobiotics.
List the antibacterial substances that are part of the serous secretions of mixed glands in conducting airways.

Peroxidase, IgA, Lysozyme, Lectoferrin, Secretory Leukocyte protease inhibitor)
List 8 different cell types that are found on alveolar wall.
(1) Type I (10%)
(2) Type II (12%)
(3) Endothelial (30%)
(4) Macrophage (10%)
(5) Septal cells (36%)
(6) Smooth muscle cells
(7) Mast cells
(8) Eosinophils
What is the function of the septal cells in the alveolar wall?
Septal cells provide the supporting structure.

They maintain ground substance, collagen and elastic fibers of the wall.

They are also contractile.
What is the function of endothelial cell in the alveolar wall?
They clean the blood of serotonin, norepinephrine, prostaglandins, other hormones and drugs.

They convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
Which cells contain angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
Endothelial cells of the alveolar wall.
List each layer of the skin.
Epidermis--C LG's Basale
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratus Basale

Epidermo-Dermal junction.

Papillary Dermis
Reticular Dermis
Which layer of dermis have fibroblast as predominant cell type?
Papillary dermis (loose to dense CT)

Reticular dermis (dense irregular CT)
What are all the cell types found in papillary dermis?
Melanocytes, Macrophages, Mast cells, Plasma cells and Lymphocytes
Which collagen type are found in....

Papillary dermis
Reticular dermis
Papillary - Collagen I, III and elastic fibers

Reticular dermis - Collagen I and elastic fibers (only few)
Turnover time for epidermis..

Thick hair is found at...
is 20-30 days.

Pubis, axilla, eye brow, top of the head.
Which layer contains...

Meisner's corpuscle?

Sweat glands?
Papillary dermis (also very vascular)

Hypodermis (or dermis, found at the junction)
List some identifyinc characteristics of Stratum Spinosum.
(1) Melanin granules towards the suface
(2) Karatin rich cytoplasm
(3) Desmosomes to attach tightly to neighbouring cells
(4) Membrane coating granules
List two types of granules found in the stratum granulosum.
Membrane coating granules - pushed toward cell membrane. Excreted to form lipid-rich water repellent material around cells.

Keratohyalin granules - contain keratin and flaggrin. Do not leave cell. Penetrated by keratin filaments.
What is in keratohyalin granules? What is their function?
Keratin and Flaggrin (his-rich binding proteins).

They help with desmosome-keratin binding. Penetrated by kerating filaments.
Which layer cells do not have organelles?

Which layers have keratinohyalin granules?

Which cells create water-repellent barrier between cells?

Which cells are considered committed stem cells?

Which cells attach to basal lamina via hemidesmosomes?
Stratum Corneum

Stratum Granulosum, Lucidum

Stratum granulosum

Stratum basale

Stratum Basale
What is the function of membrane coating granules in stratum granulosum and spinosum?
They contain glycolipid rich lamellar bodies (acylglucosylcermide).

Created water seal around the cell (makes plasma membrane even thicker) not via desmosomes or such junctions.
Keratinization process is stimulated by...

Inhibited by....
Epidermal growth factor

Transforming growth factor
Result of abnormal T-cell response.

Langehans cells present the foreign Antigen to cytotoxic and T-Helper cells. T-cells release various inflammatory response factors (TNF alpha) and cause keratinocytes to release cytokines and inflammatory proteins.

This results in inflammation of dermis and epidermis and increased and increased mitosis of keratinocytes.
Melanin formation

Enzyme - its activation
Tyrosine ---> DOPA

Tyrosinase catalyzes this conversion.

Tyrosinase is activated by UV light and MSH.
How does hair bulb get nourishment?
Via dermal papilla.
What are the three layers of hair matrix?

Which cell types do they consist of?
Medulla, Cortex, Cuticle

Medulla - Vacoulated cells
Cortex - Keratinized cells
Cuticle - Highly keratinized cells (like stratum corneum)
How is hair made?
Trichohyalin, a glue protein binds keratin together forming hair shaft.
What are the attachments of errector pili muscles?
Papillary dermis to the hair shaft.
Describe layes of hair (inside to outside).
Medulla (vacuolated cells)
Cortex (keratinized cells)
Cuticle (highly keratinized cells - like SC)
Inner root matrix (stratum corneum)
External root matrix (SG, SS and SB)
Glue protein.

Similar to flaggrin in keratohylain granules. Hold keratin together to form hair shaft.
Meduallary rays consist of..

They are located in...
Collecting ducts, Straight portions of distal and proximal tubules.

They are in cortex.
What is unique about kidney's embronic development?
Nephrons (mesenchyme) and collecting ducts (metanephrogenic mesenchyme -ureter) have different origin.
List the three hormones released by kidney.
Erythropoietin - RBC production

Renin- BP regulation (via renin-angiotensin system)

1,25 dihydroxycholecaciferol (stimulate Ca reabsorption in intestine and kidney and stimulate PTH gland)
List the hormones that kidney responds to..
How does ANF impact kindney functions?
Produced by atrial myocytes. (1) Increase glomerular filteration (2) Decreased NaCL reabsoption (3) Inhibit renin production
How does Aldosterone work on kidney?
(1) Works on the principal cells of the collecting duct

(2) Increases reabsorption of NaCl

(3) Increases K secretion
How does PTH impact kidney functions?
(1) Increase Ca reabsorption (because PTH causes osteoclast activity)

(2) Decrease phosphate reabsorption
Aldosterone works on which cell types?

ANF is released by..
Principal cells (in DCT and Collecting duct)

Atrial Myocytes
What are the boundaries of the renal pyramid?
Base - Arcuate arteries (corticomedually junction)

Sides - Interlobar arteries

Apex - Area Cribosa (where minor calyx starts).

Adult human kidney has about 8-20 pyramids.
Bertin's columns
Cortical structures that spill over the base of the pyramid into the medulla.
Which two ducts are always in the medulla?
Thin limb of desc loop of henle and Largest collecting duct (Duct of Bellini)
What are the two cell types involved in forming Glomerular Filteration barrier?
Endothelial cells of afferent and efferent arterioles


Visceral Podocytes (epitehalial cell dervies)
JG cells release...
Renin, Angiotensin I, Angiotensin II, ACE (Part of Interglomerular feeback system)

Also release, Prostaglandings, Kinins and Adenosine
Tubulogomerular feeback system...
Macula densa cells monitor urine volume and concentration.

Via paracrine signaling, they cause the release of Rening, Angiotensin I, II and ACE by JG cells.

Receptors on mesengial cells cause these cells to contract and GFR changes.
Intragolmerular Mesengial cells.

Three functions..
(1) Increase GFR (in response to ANP)
(2) Decrease GFR (in response to Renin, Angiotesin II)
(3) Clean filteration barrier (they are phagocytic)

Inside GBM

Origination - Modified smooth muscle cells (analogous to pericytes)
Which cells respond to glomerular injury? They release...
Exterglomerular mesengial cells.

Release IL-1 and PDGF
Gomerular endothelial cells

Afferent and efferent arterioles, and glomerular capillaries.

Fenestrated w/o diaphragms

Derived from..
Viscelar layer of bowman's capsule

Epothelial cells

Have primary and secondary processes.
Which two cell types have solitary cilium?
Parietal epithelium cells of bowman's capsule.

Distal tubule cells
Juxtaglomerular cells

Synthesize and secrete
Modified SMC. Located in tunic media of afferent arterioles.

Renin (may contain Angiotensin I, II and ACE)
Macyla Densa cells

Cell type
Type - Cuboidal to columnar cells

Location - In DCT close to JG cells at vascular pole.

Monitors urine volume and concentration. It talks to JG cells via paracrine cells. Causes the release of Renin from JG cells.

(NOTE: There is no basement membrane between Macula densa and JG cells)
Proximal tubule cells

Primary function.
Reabsorption and some secretion

Microvilli border with many calveolae. Lateral membrane is indistinct between cells. Many mitochondria and basal and lateral infoldings. Sodium pumps and costransporters.

Secretes - 1,25dihydrocholecalciferol
Distal tubule cells

Apical nucles, few microvilli, solitar cilium

Active transport of Na/Cl

(some cells specialize as macula densa cells)
Two types of cells in collecting duct.

Their function
Principal cells (light color)
Intercalated cells (dark color)

Principal - Reabsorb Na
Intercalated - Reabsorb K (via H/K active transporter)
Transitional epithelium
Urinary epithelium with dome cells.

Multilayered, Multinucleate cells
Which cells secrete extracellular matrix for medulla?
Medullary intersitial cells (fibrocytes)
Negatively charged glycoproteins in the glycocalyx of Podocytes
Three layers of Glomerular filtration barrier

Three divisions of basal lamina..
Endothelium, Basal lamina and 2ndary processes of podocytes

Basal lamina..
Lamina Densa (from podocytes and EC and makes physical barrier due to collagen IV)

Lamina Rarae (externa-podocytes and interna-EC) Creates electrostatic barrier due to negatively charged proteins like Heparan Sulfate.
What kind of collagen is found in Lamina dense?

What kind of proteins are found in Lamina Rarae?

What kind of proteins are found between secondary processes of podocytes?
Collagen IV

Heparan Sulfate (negatively charged proteins)

Podocalxins - Negatively charged proteins in glycocalyx.
Which kind of nerve fibers stimulate JG cells?
What are glands of littre
Along the male and female urethra.

Secrete mucous