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68 Cards in this Set

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Subendothelial CT layer of Tunica Intima contains which kind of protein?
Collagen I Fibers and PGs.

(Tunica Intima has three layets - Endothelial, Subendothelial and IEL)
Tunica media is delimited by...

Tunica Media is sectioned by...
IEL and EEL.

Elastic Lamina
List 4 protein types found within Tunica Media...
(1) Collagen I
(2) Collagen III (Reticular fibers)
(3) Fibrillin
(4) Elastic Fibers (Elastic Lamina(
List the fiber types found in Tunica Adventitia
Collagen I
Elastic Fiber
What are three types of arteries? Where are they found?
Elastic (closure to heart, bigger arteries)
Muscular (near organs, named arteries)
Arterioles (Little arteries)
Tissue types for...

Subendothelial CT
Subendocardium CT
Subepicardium CT
Tunica Adventitia
Subendothelial CT - Dense Reg
Subendocardium CT - Loose
Myocardium - Loose
Subepicardium CT - Loose
Tunica Adventitia - Dense Reg
How to tell a difference between an artery and a vein?
Arteries - Round shape. Crikled IEL. Thick wall (pressure reg) Media prominent (for pressure)

Veins - Deformed shape. Smooth IEL. Thin wall. Adventitia prominent
Epinephrine ____ vessels. ____ receptors are used.

Norepinephrine ____ vessels. ____ receptors are used.
Dilates, Beta 2

Constricts, Alpha 1
Thickness of myocardium...
Thickness of endocardium...
L Ventricle > R Ventricle >> Atria

Atria >> R Ventricle > L Ventricle
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
Secreted by Atrial Myocytes in response to increases atrial distention.

converted to active hormone (peptide) in blood – acts upon kidneys to cause
natriuresis and diuresis (loss of salt and water)
Which layer of heart tissue carries conduction fibers?
Tunica Intima; Subpericardium layer
Cresyl blue stain is used to stain...
Reticulocytes. (it shows a reticular pattern of organelle remnants)
Name the types of cells that are found in the marrow structure.
Stromal cells

Clonal cells (of erythrocytes, megakaryocytes and granulocytes)
Which cells give rise to platlets?
Megakaryocytes
Stromal cells secrete...
Cytokines
Growth factors (BFGF)
Interlukins
CFS (colony stimulating factors)
Three types of granulycytes..
Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils
What does HCT and Plasma represent in the anticoagulated blood?
HCT - RBC, WBC, Platlets
Plasma - Serum, Fibrinogen
What is buffy coat?
Topmost layer of the HCT. 1% WBC and Platlets.
What is a reticulocyte?

Its size...

Stain...
Newly formed RBC.

8um

Brilliant cresol blue (remnants of the cellular organelles can be seen)
List the cells type that are part of Agranulocytes and Granulocytes...
Agranulocytes - Lymphocytes and Monocytes

Granulocytes - Eosinophil, Basophil, Neutrophil
What is the lifespan of a megakaryocyte?
10 days
What is vaso vasorum and where is it located?

How does different layers of vessels get their nutrient?
"vessels of vessels" provides nutrients to the vessels.

Branch profusely in the tunica adventitia and outer layers of tunica media.

(other strucutres, like tunica intimia, receive nutrients from diffusion from the blood in the lumen)
What is the difference in tunica media of muscular artery versus elastic artery?
Muscular artery only has smooth muscle.

Elastic artery has smooth muscle with elastic laminas.
Which layer forms the valves in veins?

These valves are rich in...

They are lined by...
Tunica Intima
Rich in elastic fibers and
Lined on both sides by endothelium.
Purkinje cells are housed in which layer of heart?
Subendocardium layer of Endocardium
Which kinds of cells are found in follwing layers?

Endocardium
Subendothelial layer
Subendocardium layer
Myocardium
Epicardium
Endo - Endothelium, SMC
Subendothelial layer - Fibroblasts, SMC
Subendocardium layer - Purkinje cells
Myo - cardiac cells
Epi - Mesothelium, SMC
RBC Characteristics...

Size
Shape
Total #in blood
Lifespan
mL replaced everyday
Size - 7.5um
Shape - Biconcave
Total #in blood - 5 to 6M
Lifespan - 120 days
mL replaced everyday - 20
How do RBCs maintain their shape (using which proteins)?
(1) Membrane associated protein mesh (spectrin and actin associated)

(2) HgB content

(3) HgB solubility
What are reticulocytes?

Size?

%age in blood?

Stain?
Newly formed RBCs.

Little bigger than RBC - 8-10um

1 to 2% of circulating RBCs

Cresol blue stain (some organelle remnants can be seen)
What is the MCV for RBC and for Reticulocytes?

Amount of packed RBCs in blood?
RBC - 90um(3)

Reticulocytes - 100um(3)

2400ml
Explain what happens to RBCs after 120 days...
(1) Damanged cells removed by RE system (spleen, liver and marrow).

(2) Fe is recycled via transferrin

(3) Heme is excreted

(4) Globin us degraded and reused.
List the %age content of following WBCs.

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Neutrophils - 60%
Eosinophils - 3%
Basophils - <1%
Lymphocytes - 33%
Monocytes - 5%
Non-specific granules vs. specific granules (in neutrophils)

%age
contains...
NS-30%, S-70%

NS-Lysosomal Azure

NS - Acid phosphatase, elastase, collagenase, peroxidase, cathespin G

S - specific antibecterial substances such as lactoferrin, phagocytin, lysozyme
Opsonin
Complement factor on Neutrophil which binds to bacteria and signals for lysosomal phagocytosis.
What is diapedesis?
Movement of leukocytes across capillary walls as part of infection response.

Rolling and Loose binding - Selectin ligand on lymphocytes bind to selectin receptors on the endothelial wall.

Tight binding - Integrins. Bind to integrin receptors on the endothelial wall.
List proteins that are found in eosinophils
(1) Easinophilic Cationic Protein
(2) Eosinophil Derived Neurotoxin
(3) Histaminase
(4) Aryl Sulfatase B
(5) Peroxidase
Which stain is used to view Eosinophils?

Which basic proteins are found in the eosinophils?
Wright's stain..

ECP
Eosinophil derived neurotoxin
Eotaxin
Found in epithelia, fibroblasts and SMcells of asthmatic respiratory tract.

Eotaxin causes degranulation of eosinophils and high levels of ECP can be noted.
What kind of Ig receptors are found on basophils?
IgE
Platlet granules...

Beta
Alpha
BAAS - ATP, ADP, Serotonin (for platlet aggregation).

Alpha - Fibrinogen, Clotting factors, PDGF
PDGF characteristics..
Chemotactic for inflammatory response cells (Neutrophils, monocytes, fibroblasts, SMC)

Mitogenic for SMC and fibrocytes.
What is the function of thromboplastin?
It converts prothrombin to thrombin.
List the two effects that thrombin have during clot formation...
(1) Firbrinogen to fibrin
(2) Release of thrombospondin from platlet
What is the function of thrombospondin?

Function of vonWillerband Factor?
Thrombospondin - Platlet self adhesion

vonWillerband factor - Platlet adhesion to wall
Platlets...

Shape
Size
Skeleton
Shape - Biconvex
Size - 2-4um
Skeleton - Rich in actin-myosin and surrounded by ring of microtubules.
Which cells contain histaminase?
Eosinophils
What does central pallor mean in RBC?
Less hemoglobin in the RBCs.
What does a drumstick represent in a neutrophil?
Drumstick represents an inactive X chromosome in a female neutrophil cell.
Azurophilic granules are...
primary lysosomal granules.
Podocytes are associated with...
capillaries in the glomerulus.

Their pedicles surround capillaries and provide an extra layer of filteration.
What are lacteals?
Lymphatic vessels in intestine. (remember lymphatic vessels look like holes).
What are the two classifications of lymphoid organs?
Lymphoreticular - reticular cells surround parenchymal cells (ex.-lymph nodes, thymus, spleen)

Lymphoepithelial - Associated with an epithelium so lymph nodes can colonize the epithelium (ex-tonsils, peryer's patches, lymphatic nodules).
Macrophages are derived from...
Monocytes
List examples of APCs..
(1) Macrophages
(2) Dendritic cells
(3) Langerhans cells
(4) M cells in the intestinal musosa
Name three proteins presented on the surface of..

B cells
T cells
APC
IgM then IgD, CD19+

T-receptor proteins, CD3+

MHC II and Antigen (No CD proteins)
Which T cells are activated in response to MHC I and MHC II?
MHC1 - Cytokine T cells

MHCII - helper T cells (which will in turn activate B cells and Ab release)
What are chylomicrons?
Lacteals absorn cholesterol as chylomicrons. Lymphatic vessels (lacteals) transport these chylomicrons to liver.

Lacteas are found in small intestine only.
What are addresins?
P and E selectin molecules that help lymphocytes with diapedesis.
What kinds of cells are found on following regions of a lymph node?

Cortex
Paracortex
Medulla
Sinus
Cortex - B cells, APC, Th2, Plasma cells (in germinal centers).

Paracortex - T cells, APC

Medulla - B cells, Plasma cells, Macrophages

Sinuses - Stellate shaped reticular cells, APC, Macrophages
Endogenous inflammation vs. exogenous inflammation response.
Endogenous- Presented by APC and MHC I. Cytotoxix T cells are activated.

Exogenous - Presented by APC and MHC II. T helper cells are activated. Th1 activates more T cells and Th2 activate B cells.
What kind of cells are found in...

PALS -
Lymphoid Nodules
Marginal zone
T cells
B cells
B and T cells, Macrophages, APC
What kinds of cells are found in thymic cortex?
T cells, Macrophages and Ectodermally derived endothelial reticular cells.
How do we know that reticular cells in thymus are epithelial origin?
Due to Karatin in their desmosome junctions (keratin filaments in the epithelial cells).
How many different kinds of stromal cells exist in Thymus?

Which are APC?

Which contribute to Hassel's corpuscle?

Which form border between Medulla and cortex?
6 different times.

APC - II and V

HC - VI

III and IV.
What are the three types of lymphocytes?
T, B and NK cells
Where does erythropoietin get synthesized?
90% in kidney and 10% in liver.
What kind of CT is cardiac fibrous skeleton?

Which layer of heart secretes serous fluid?
Dense

Mesothelium of epicardium
Chordae Tendinae

Attachment

Consists of...
Papillary muscles of ventricles to ventricular surfaces of tricuspid and mitral valves.

Collagen fibers